The variations of selected serum cytokines involved in cytokine Storm after Omega-3 daily supplements: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Jordanians with vitamin D deficiency

Main Article Content

Rafeef AL Khaled
Jehad F. Alhmoud
Reem Issa
Heba A. Khader
Beisan A. Mohammad
Ahmad R. Alsayed
Khalid Abu Khadra
Maha Habash
Ahmad Aljaberi
Luai Hasoun
Mahmoud S. Abu-Samak
Ibrahim mosleh

Keywords

Omega-3, unsaturated fatty acid, cytokine storm, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing unsaturated free fatty acids (n-3FA) on the levels of specific cytokines associated with cytokine storm in the blood of 72 Jordanian individuals (both men and women) who had insufficient vitamin D. The study was conducted using a randomized controlled design (RCT). Individuals eligible for the study were randomly assigned to either the n-3FA supplemented (intervention) group or the non-supplemented (control) group. The intervention group received 1,000 mg of wild salmon and fish oil complex, which is equivalent to 300 mg of n-3FA, for a duration of eight weeks, while the control group did not. Blood tests to assess tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipid profile, and fasting blood sugar were conducted at baseline and after ten weeks (with a two-week washout period). Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were measured. Our research indicates that taking n-3FA supplements significantly raised IL-1 β, IL-6, and IL-10 levels compared to their initial levels. However, TNF-α levels did not show any significant changes. The interesting results of this randomized controlled trial could be due to a possible harmful effect of n-3FA supplementation during cytokine storms (CS), specifically on IL-6. Therefore, additional clinical studies are needed in the target patients during cytokine storm to determine if this supplement could affect the treatment with IL-6 antagonists.

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