Implementing Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome management system by hospital pharmacists in Samutsakhon Hospital, Thailand
Main Article Content
DRESS, Drug allergy, Pharmacist, Implementation, Genotyping, High alert drugs
Objectives: To study the process of implementing the DRESS management system by pharmacists and its results, during 2016-2020. Research Method: Operational Research, starting from the process of implementing the DRESS management system by the pharmacy department of Samutsakhon Hospital and reporting the results to the Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee in patients diagnosed with DRESS according to the RegiSCAR criteria, collecting data from an electronic medical records database. Study Results: The main DRESS management system implementation process is: 1) listing the High alert drugs which may cause an adverse reaction and preparation of pharmacists in DRESS; 2) Using RegiSCAR for patient assessment; 3) Suggesting a genotyping test before the patient receives the drug, starting with carbamazepine and allopurinol; 4) Using a Computerized Decision Support System (CDSS) to facilitate the screening alert. 5) Proposing to the Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee for approval on gene testing. As a result, a total of 184 patients were sent for genotyping testing, and 92 of the drug allergy genes were identified, making the prevention or monitoring of patients more effectively. 31 patients were diagnosed with DRESS, and 54.84% were male. The 4 drug items with the highest incidence were phenytoin 28.95%, nevirapine 10.53%, rifampicin 7.89%, and pyrazinamide 7.89%. Clinical symptoms were rash 100.00%, fever 90.32%, lymphadenopathy 6.45%, at least one dysfunction in the internal organ system 74.19%, liver dysfunction 80.65%, and eosinophilia 58.65%. Phenytoin had a statistically significant induced eosinophil (p=0.044), which could be used as a factor in the CDSS drug surveillance. Conclusion: Even DRESS is a rare adverse drug reaction symptom but causes life-threatening. Continuous system management by pharmacists is significant with a huge effect. In the drug items, the highest incidence was phenytoin. Implementing a system to monitor patients’ drug use, could reduce DRESS, and prevent the recurrence of drug allergies.
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