Impact of pharmacist-led care on glycaemic control of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial in Nigeria

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Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glycemic Control, Pharmacists, Pharmaceutical Services, Patient Education as Topic, Blood Glucose, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Intention to Treat Analysis, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Nigeria


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic, degenerative disease, requiring a multi-dimensional, multi-professional care by healthcare providers and substantial self-care by the patients, to achieve treatment goals.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led care on glycaemic control in patients with uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes

Methods: In a parallel group, single-blind randomised controlled study; type 2 diabetic patients, with greater than 7% glycated haemoglobin (A1C) were randomised into intervention and usual care groups and followed for six months. Glycated haemoglobin analyzer, lipid analyzer and blood pressure monitor/apparatus were used to measure patients’ laboratory parameters at baseline and six months. Intervention group patients received pharmacist-structured care, made up of patient education and phone calls, in addition to usual care. In an intention to treat analysis, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare median change at six months in the primary (A1C) and secondary outcome measures. Effect size was computed and proportion of patients that reached target laboratory parameters were compared in both arms.

Results: All enrolled participants (108) completed the study, 54 in each arm. Mean age was 51 (SD 11.75) and majority were females (68.5%). Participants in the intervention group had significant reduction in A1C of -0.75%, compared with an increase of 0.15% in the usual care group (p<0.001; eta-square= 0.144). The proportion of those that achieved target A1C of <7% at 6 months in the intervention and usual care group was 42.6% vs 20.8% (p=0.02). Furthermore, intervention patients were about 3 times more likely to have better glucose control; A1C<7% (aOR 2.72, 95%CI: 1.14-6.46) compared to usual care group, adjusted for sex, age, and duration of diabetes.

Conclusions: Pharmacist-led care significantly improved glycaemic control in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

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