Hospital and community pharmacists’ perception of the scope, barriers and challenges of pharmacy practice-based research in Nigeria

Main Article Content


Community-Based Participatory Research, Pharmacies, Pharmacists, Surveys and Questionnaires, Nigeria


Objectives: To evaluate perception, extent of involvement and barriers to pharmacy practice-based research among community and hospital pharmacists in Ibadan, Oyo state, southwestern Nigeria.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out among 65 hospital and 86 community pharmacists with at least five-year post-qualification experience, using pre-tested questionnaire. Socio-demographic information, extent of involvement, relevance and scope, as well as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research were explored. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney-U tests were used for evaluating ranked variables at p<0.05.

Results: Nearly all participants (>95.0%) in each practice category agreed that pharmacy practice-based research is essential to pharmacy profession. Greater than 90.0% agreed that pharmacy practice-based research may help in identifying gaps to improve practice. Thirty-five (40.7%) community and 36(55.4%) hospital pharmacist participants had previously involved in practice-based research. Seventy-seven (89.5%) community and 55(84.3%) hospital pharmacists agreed that acquisition of additional research-oriented training is essential for effective conduct of pharmacy practice-based research. More than one-half in each category agreed that inadequate financial commitment and lack of access to patient’s data are major barriers to pharmacy practice-based research.

Conclusions: Community and hospital pharmacists agreed that pharmacy practice based research is essential to pharmacy profession, especially in identifying areas of focus to improve practice. Necessity for acquiring additional training in research, financial constraints and lack of access to patient’s data were identified as barriers to pharmacy practice-based research. Thus, there is a need to continually stimulate pharmacists’ interest in research so as to enhance professional competence and promote healthcare development.

Abstract 1963 | PDF Downloads 1641


1. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) Statement of Policy: Good pharmacy education and practice. The Hague, The Netherlands. International Pharmaceutical Federation, 2000. Available at (accessed 30 October, 2016).

2. Wiedenmayer K, Summers RS, Mackie CA, Gous AGS, Everald M, Tromp TFJ. Developing Pharmacy Practice – A Focus on Patient Care. World Health Organisation & International Pharmaceutical Federation 2006. Available at (accessed 30 October, 2016).

3. Habeeb IAR, Jose D, Jegan RS. Pharmacists in the wider public health workforce – a review. Arch Pharm Pract. 2012;3(2)166-169.

4. Ryan K, Bissell P, Anderson C, Traulsen JM, Sleath B. Teaching social sciences to undergraduate pharmacy students: an international survey. Pharm Educ. 2007;7(1):1-9.

5. Adepu R, Nagavi B. General practitioners’ perception about the extended roles of community pharmacists in the state of Karnataka: A study. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2006;68:36-40.

6. Kaboli PJ, Hoth AB, McClimon BJ, Schnipper JL. Clinical pharmacists and inpatient medical care: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(9):955-964.

7. Akhtar MM, Waheed A, Sheikh D, Hussain A. Role of pharmacist in improving health related quality of life (HRQoL) in hypertensive patients in Pakistan. Am J Pharmacol Sci. 2014;2(5B):17-22. doi: 10.12691/ajps-2-5B-5

8. Chamba G, Bauguil G, Galiezot J. The role of French community pharmacist in drug dispensing. Pharm World Sci. 1999;21(3):142-143.

9. Westerlund T, Almarsdóttir AB, Melander A. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug related problems in community pharmacy. Pharm World Sci. 1999;21(6):245-250.

10. Frokier B, Bolvig T, Griese N, Herborg H, Rossing C. Prevalence of drug-related problems in self-medication in Danish community pharmacies. Innovations in Pharmacy 2012; 3(4):95.

11. Weinstein M, Herrings R, Leufkens H. Determinants of pharmacists’ interventions linked to prescription processing. Pharm World Sci. 2001;23(3):98-101.

12. Mays N. A new age for pharmacy practice research: promoting evidence-based practice in pharmacy. London: Royal Pharmaceutical Society; 1997.

13. Al-Quteimat OM, Amer AM. Evidence-based pharmaceutical care: The next chapter in pharmacy practice. Saudi Pharm J. 2016;24(4):447-451. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.07.010

14. Sultana K, Jeraisy MA, Al Ammari M, Patel R, Zaidi STR. Attitude, barriers and facilitators to practice-based research: cross-sectional survey of hospital pharmacists in Saudi Arabia. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2016;9:4. doi: 10.1186/s40545-016-0052-z

15. Awaisu A, Alsalimy N. Pharmacist’s involvement and attitudes towards pharmacy practice research: A systematic review of the literature. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2015;11(6):725-748. doi: 10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.12.008

16. Ellerby DA, Williams A, Winfield AJ. The level of interest in pharmacy practice research among community pharmacists. Pharm J. 1993;251:321-322.

17. Simpson SH, Johnson JA, Biggs C, Biggs RS, Kuntz A, Semchuk W, Taylor JG, Farris KB, Tsuyuki RT. Practice-based research: lessons from community pharmacist participants. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(6):731-739.

18. Saini B, Brillant M, Filipovska J, Gelgor L, Mitchell B, Rose G, Smith L. Factors influencing Australian community pharmacists’ willingness to participate in research projects - an exploratory study. Int J Pharm Pract. 2006;14(3):179-188.

19. Liddell H. Attitudes of community pharmacists regarding involvement in practice research. Pharm J. 1996;256:905-907.

20. Bakken S, Lantigua RA, Busacca LV, Bigger JT. Barriers, enablers and incentives for research participation: A report from the Ambulatory Care Research Network (ACRN). J Am Board Fam Med. 2009;22(4):436-445. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2009.04.090017

21. World Health Organization. Global strategy for containment of antimicrobal resistance: World Health Organization, communicable diseases surveillance and response (CRS) WHO/CDS/CRS/DRS/2001.2. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.

22. Joda AE, Nwaokomah SO. Assessment of pharmacy students' willingness to practice after graduation. West Afr J Pharm. 2011;22(1):82-90.

23. Oparah AC, Eferakeya AE. Attitude of Nigerian pharmacists towards pharmaceutical care. Pharm World Sci. 2005;27(3):208-214.

24. Bakker A. Pharmacy-practice research: A challenge for academia and practicing pharmacists. Pharm Acta Helvet. 1996; 71: 373–379. doi: 10.1016/S0031-6865(96)00036-2

25. Roberts R, Kennington E. Pharmacy Practice research has an impact on each and every pharmacist. Pharm J. 2010;284:267-271.

26. Perreault MM, Thiboutot Z, Burry LD, Rose L, Kanji S, Leblanc JM, Carr RR, Williamson DR. Canadian survey of critical care pharmacists’ views and involvement in clinical research. Ann Pharmacother. 2012;46(9):1167-1173. doi: 10.1345/aph.1R180

27. Peterson GM, Jackson SL Fitzmaurice KD, Gee PR. Attitudes of Australian pharmacists towards practice-based research. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2009;34(4):397-405. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2008.01020.x

28. Dickerson LM, Kraus CK, Kuo GM, Weber CA, Bazaldua OV, Tovar JM, Hume AL, Ives TJ, Gums JG, Carter BL. Formation of a primary care pharmacist practice-based research network. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64(19):2044-2049.

29. Chewning B, Schommer JC. Increasing clients' knowledge of community pharmacists' roles. Pharm Res. 1996;13(9):1299-1304.

30. Paulino EL, Bouvy ML, Gastelurrutia MA, Guerreiro M, Buurma H. Drug related problems identified by European community pharmacists in patients discharged from hospital. Pharm World Sci. 2004;26(6):353-360.

31. Elkassem W, Pallivalapila A, Hail MA, McHattie L, Diack L, Stewart D. Advancing the pharmacy practice research agenda: views and experiences of pharmacists in Qatar. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(5):692-696. doi: 10.1007/s11096-013-9802-z

32. Awaisu A, Bakdach D, Elajez RH, Zaidan M. Hospital pharmacists’ self-evaluation of their competence and confidence in conducting pharmacy practice research. Saudi Pharm J. 2015;23(3):257-265. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.10.002

33. Toulkidis V, Donnelly N, Ward J. Engaging Australian physicians in evidence-based medicine: a representative national survey. Intern Med J. 2005;35(1):9-17.

34. Rosenbloom K. Community pharmacists’ attitudes towards research. Int J Pharm Pract. 2000;8:103-110.

35. Armour C, Brilliant M. Pharmacists’ views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2007;5(2):59-66.

36. Seston L, Hassell K. Pharmacy workforce census 2008: main findings. Available at (accessed 29 October, 2016).

37. Dunlop J, Shaw J. Community pharmacists' perspectives on pharmaceutical care implementation in New Zealand. Pharm World Sci. 2002;24(6):224-230

38. Bezverhni Z. Consumers’ and Pharmacists’ view on community pharmacy services in the Republic of Moldova. Farmacia 2010;58(3):378-390.

39. van Mil JWF, de Boer WO, Tromp ThFJ. European barriers to the implementation of pharmaceutical care. Int J Pharm Pract. 2001;9(3):163-168.

40. Cvijovic K, Boon H, Jaeger W, Vohra S. Pharmacists’ participation in research: a case of trying to find the time. Int J Pharm Pract. 2010;18(6):377-383. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00067.x

41. Okonta JM, Okonta EO, Ofoegbu TC. Barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care by pharmacists in Nsukka and Enugu metropolis of Enugu state. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2012;3(2):295-298.