Women’s involvement in clinical trials: historical perspective and future implications

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Natalie A. DiPietro Mager
Katherine A. Liu


Clinical Trials as Topic, Patient Participation, Women's Health, Female, Research, United States


The importance of considering the differences between the male and female sex in clinical decision-making is crucial. However, it has been acknowledged in recent decades that clinical trials have not always adequately enrolled women or analyzed sex-specific differences in the data. As these deficiencies have hindered the progress of understanding women’s response to medications, agencies in the United States have worked towards the inclusion of women in clinical trials and appropriate analysis of sex-specific data from clinical trials. This review outlines the history and progress of women’s inclusion in clinical trials for prescription drugs and presents considerations for researchers, clinicians, and academicians on this issue.


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