Evaluation of the Association between Inhaler technique and adherence in Asthma Control: Cross-Sectional Comparative Analysis Study between Amman and Baghdad

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Zainab M. Al-kilkawi
Iman A. Basheti
Nathir M. Obeidat
Muhannad RM Saleh
Salim Hamadi
Reem Abutayeh
Razan Nassar
Ahmad R. Alsayed


asthma, inhaler technique, adherence, control, Middle East


Purpose: Asthma is a chronic condition affecting millions of people all around the world. Asthma has no cure, but disease control is essential and highly recommended. However, the available tools for asthma control assessment don’t include factors such as inhaler technique and adherence. This study aimed to assess the correlation between inhaler techniques, adherence, and level of asthma control in two different healthcare settings; Jordan and Iraq. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was con-ducted over six months, from January to August 2018, in two public hospitals in Amman (Jordan) and Baghdad (Iraq). Asthmatic patients were interviewed to assess their inhaler technique, adherence, and asthma control. The researcher personally visited both public hospitals, conducting face-to-face interviews with patients at the hospital outpatient clinics. Validated questionnaires were used for patient assessment, including demographics, asthma history and medication use, the patient’s inhaler technique, adherence, and asthma control. Results: A total of 300 patients entered the study, with a mean age of 45.54 ± 13.71. The asthma control test showed very poor asthma control for patients living in both countries (Amman n=78 (52.0%) vs. Baghdad n=106 (70.0%)). An asthma knowledge assessment showed that most asthmatic patients in both countries didn’t follow their asthma medication plan (Amman n=78 (52.0%) vs. Baghdad n=93 (62.0%). Conclusion: In both Jordan and Iraq, asthma patients were found to be poorly controlled. Knowledge of patients was inadequate, probably leading to the poorly managed chronic disease. The results of this study highlight the significance of the pharmacist’s role in recognizing asthmatic patients requiring assistance. Furthermore, they underscore the pharmacist’s pivotal contribution to delivering patient education and counseling, ultimately resulting in enhanced asthma control.

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