Current perspective of vaccination in Spain for dogs and cats from a pharmaceutical approach.

Main Article Content

Graña Almudena
Cristina Carrera
Botana Luis


vaccines, dogs, cats, pharmacist, Spain


Background: The development of clinical pharmacy practice for humans and animals in the recent years has resulted in new goals and challenges for pharmacists that work to improve patient care, preventing medication related problems and optimizing resources. Currently, in Spain, there are so many dogs’ and cats’ vaccines from different manufacturers, with different microorganisms’ combination which are not readily identifiable. This fact makes us wonder if they are all necessary and/or convenient, and if they meet the criteria of the international guidelines. Objective: It aimed to examine the current situation of vaccination in dogs and cats in Spain, as well as if available vaccines are suitable, or if the technical data sheets match with the recommendations of consensus guides. Methods: All available vaccines in Spain were counted, evaluated and classified by using the search engine CIMAvet, into monovalent or combined and suitable or unsuitable according to their composition and vaccination schedule with guidelines WSAVA and COLAVAC. Results: As a result, we found 15 vaccines for dogs and 7 for cats, when attending to its composition. However, it gives rise to 46 vaccines for dogs and 14 for cats, if we regarded to the different manufacturers. The 69.6% of dogs’ and 57.1% of cats’ vaccines were considered unsuitable. Resulting as optimal combinations of microorganisms: Bordetella+Parainfluenza, Distemper+Adenovirus+Parvovirus, Leptospira alone and Rabies alone for dogs and Calicivirus+Herpes virus+Panleukopenia, Leukemia alone and Rabies alone for cats. Besides, it was observed that vaccines data sheet don´t meet with international schedule in percentages of 69.6% and 64.3% respectively. Conclusion: Only 28.6% of dogs’ and 42.9% of cats’ vaccines in Spain, are considered suitable, and 30.4% of dogs’ and 35.7% of cats’ vaccines data sheets fully agree with guidelines. Thus, we highly suggest, data sheets updating a recommended vaccination schedule and the unification in vaccines nomenclature, totally necessary, from our point of view, to help veterinarians in the clinical decision-making process to vaccinate properly with the lowest risks and minimizing costs, promoting therapeutic adherence and providing a beneficial impact on animals and society.

Abstract 1209 | PDF Downloads 290


1. Plotkin S. History of vaccination. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2014;111(34):12283-12287.
2. Autran B, Launay O, Floret D. Vaccinations. EM Consult. 2016;15:49465-7.
3. Vetter V, Denizer G, Friedland LR, et al. Understanding modern-day vaccines: what you need to know. Ann Med. Taylor and Francis Ltd; 2018;50(2):110-120.
4. Day MJ, Horzinek MC, Schultz RD, et al. WSAVA Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. Journal of Small Animal Practice. Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2016;57(1):E1-E45.
5. Stafford EG. Highlighting the role of veterinary pharmacists in zoonotic diseases including COVID-19. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association. Elsevier; 2020;60(6):e84-e87.
6. Pastor J, Suárez M, Reisinho A, et al. Recomendaciones de inmunización para las enfermedades infecciosas de los perros y gatos España y Portugal. 2020.
7. Stone AES, Brummet GO, Carozza EM, et al. 2020 AAHA/AAFP Feline Vaccination Guidelines. J Feline Med Surg. 2020;22(9):813- 830.
8. Ellis J, Marziani E, Stull J, et al. 2022 AAHA Canine Vaccination Guidelines. 2022.
9. Ordovás JP, Climente M, Poveda JL. .3.1.1. Selección de medicamentos y Guía Farmacoterapéutica. Farmacia Hospitalaria Tomo I;2002. Available from: (accessed on 10.04.2023).
10. CIMAVet :Centro de información de medicamentos para veterinaria. Available from: publico/home.html (accessed on 9.04.2023)
11. Tizard IR. Adverse consequences of vaccination. Vaccines for Veterinarians. Elsevier; 2021 Jan 1;115-130.e1. http://doi. org/10.1016/b978-0-323-68299-2.00019-8
12. Detmer A, Glenting J. Live bacterial vaccines - a review and identification of potential hazards. Microb Cell Fact. BioMed Central. 2006;5:23.
13. Boletín anual de Farmacovigilancia Veterinaria, año 2020 - Agencia Española de Medicamentos y Productos Sanitarios. Available from: farmacovigilancia-veterinaria-ano-2020/ (accessed on 9.04.2023)
14. European Medicines Agency (EMA). Veterinary pharmacovigilance 2019 Annual bulletin. 2020. Available from: https:// (accessed on 9.04.2023).
15. Zaugg I, Ottiger HP. Vaccinovigilance: Adverse reaction reports of animal vaccines in 2020. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd; 2021;163(9):545-552.
16. Shende P, Waghchaure M. Combined vaccines for prophylaxis of infectious conditions. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. Taylor & Francis. 2019;47(1):696-705.
17. Decaro N, Buonavoglia C. Canine parvovirus—A review of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on type 2c. Vet Microbiol. Elsevier. 2012;155(1):1.
18. Meli ML, Simmler P, Cattori V. Importance of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in free-ranging Iberian lynxes (Lynx pardinus). Vet Microbiol. Elsevier. 2010;146(1-2):132-137.
19. Galán A, Gamito A, Carletti BE. Case Report Rapport de cas Uncommon acute neurologic presentation of canine distemper in 4 adult dogs. CVJ. 2014;55:373.
20. Perpiñán D, Ramis A, Tomás A, et al. Outbreak of canine distemper in domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Veterinary Record. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2008;163(8):246-250.
21. Sobrino R, Arnal MC, Luco DF, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus among foxes and wolves from Spain. Vet Microbiol. Vet Microbiol; 2008;126(1-3):251-256.
22. Millán J, Ló Pez-Bao JV, García EJ, et al. Patterns of Exposure of Iberian Wolves (Canis lupus) to Canine Viruses in Human- Dominated Landscapes. Ecohealth. 2015;13.
23. Ellis JA, Krakowka GS. A review of canine parainfluenza virus infection in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2012;240(3):273-284.
24. Ellis JA. How well do vaccines for Bordetella bronchiseptica work in dogs? A critical review of the literature 1977-2014. Vet J. 2015;204(1):5-16.
25. Salleras L. Tecnologías de producción de vacunas (II). Vacunas inactivadas. Vacunas. Elsevier BV; 2002;3(2):78-84. http://doi. org/10.1016/S1576-9887(02)70283-5
26. Chua BY, Sekiya T, Jackson DC. Opinion: Making Inactivated and Subunit-Based Vaccines Work. Viral Immunol. Mary Ann Liebert Inc. 2018;31(2):150-158.
27. Tizard IR. Nonliving vaccines. Vaccines for Veterinarians. Elsevier; 2021;27-40. 2.00012-5
28. Salleras L. Tecnologías de producción de vacunas I: vacunas vivas atenuadas. Vacunas. Elsevier BV; 2002;3(1):29-33. http://doi. org/10.1016/S1576-9887(02)70271-9
29. Tizard IR. Living vaccines. Vaccines for Veterinarians. Elsevier; 2021;41-50. e1. 2.00013-7
30. Espí A, Prieto JM, Alzaga V. Leptospiral antibodies in Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus), fallow deer (Dama dama) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Asturias, Northern Spain. Vet J. 2010;183(2):226-227. TVJL.2008.10.003
31. Rodríguez-Vidigal FF, Vera-Tomé A, Nogales-Muñoz N, et al. Leptospirosis en un área sanitaria del suroeste español. Rev Clin Esp. Elsevier Doyma; 2014;214(5):247-252.
32. Domingo I, Cuenca M, Gimeno F, et al. Incidencia de leptospirosis en España entre 2009-2012. Rev Clin Esp. Elsevier Doyma; 2016;216(1):51-53.
33. Herrero-Martínez JM, Fernández-Ruiz M, Neil Hermenegildo Y, et al. Leptospirosis en un pocero de Madrid. Valor diagnóstico de las técnicas de biología molecular. Rev Clin Esp. Elsevier Doyma; 2012;212(11):554-555. RCE.2012.07.007
34. López MC, Vila A, Rodón J, et al. Leptospira seroprevalence in owned dogs from Spain. Heliyon. Elsevier Ltd; 2019;5(8). http://
35. Gautret P, Ribadeau-Dumas F, Parola P, et al. Risk for Rabies Importation from North Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011;17(12):2187.
36. Wallace RM, Undurraga EA, Blanton JD, et al. Elimination of dog-mediated human rabies deaths by 2030: Needs assessment and alternatives for progress based on dog vaccination. Front Vet Sci. 2017;4(FEB):9. BIBTEX.
37. Mitchell S, Zwijnenberg R, Huang J, et al. Duration of serological response to canine parvovirus-type 2, canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus type 1 and canine parainfluenza virus in client-owned dogs in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2012;90(12):468-473.
38. Dodds WJ. Early life vaccination of companion animal pets. Vaccines (Basel). MDPI AG; 2021;9(2):1-14. VACCINES9020092
39. Ravicini S, Pastor J, Hawley J, et al. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain. JFMS Open Rep. SAGE Publications; 2016;2(1).
40. Tizard IR. Failures in vaccination. Vaccines for Veterinarians. Elsevier; 2021;105-114. 68299-2.00018-6
41. Martinod S. Vaccination practices in veterinary medicine: Standardization versus tailored to needs? Adv Vet Med. Academic Press Inc. 1999;41(C):657-668.
42. Thiry E, Horzinek MC. Vaccination guidelines: a bridge between official requirements and the daily use of vaccines. Rev Sci Tech. Rev Sci Tech. 2007;26(2):511-517.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>