Provision of clinical pharmacy services in two safety net provider settings

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Sharon E. Connor
Margie E. Snyder
Zachary J. Snyder
Karen Steinmetz Pater


Poverty, Homeless Persons, Medication Therapy Management, Pharmacists, United States


Objective: The purpose of this report is to characterize the patient population served by the Grace Lamsam Pharmacy Program and to describe program outcomes.

Methods: A chart review was conducted for all patients (n=100) participating in the Grace Lamsam Pharmacy Program from January 1, 2007 to February 6, 2008. The primary outcome data collected were the medication related problems (unnecessary drug therapy, needs additional drug therapy, ineffective drug therapy, dosage too low, dosage too high, adverse drug reaction, noncompliance, and needs different drug product) identified by pharmacists, the number and type of pharmacist interventions made, estimated cost savings from perspective of the patient and clinical data (hemoglobin A1C, blood pressure measurements, and LDL-C) for patients with diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, respectively. Basic demographic data was collected, including: patient gender, age, education level, race/ethnicity, marital status, and income. Patients’ smoking status, type and number of medical conditions, medications being used at baseline, and number of pharmacist visits per patient during the study review period were also recorded.

Results: The majority of patients cared for were male, middle-aged, and African-American. The majority (90%) of patients had an income below 150% of the 2007 Federal poverty level. Patients were most commonly treated for diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. During the period of review, 188 medication related problems were identified and documented with noncompliance being the most common medication related problem identified. Pharmacists completed 477 Pharmaceutical Manufacturer Assistance Program applications for 68 patients. These interventions represented a cost savings from the patients’ perspective of approximately 243 USD per month during the review period. Blood pressure, A1C, and LDL-C readings improved in patients enrolled in the clinical pharmacy program at the free clinic and the community health center.

Conclusion: A clinical pharmacy services model provides a role for the pharmacist in an interdisciplinary team (beyond the traditional dispensing role) to identify medication related problems in the drug therapy of patients who utilize safety-net provider health care services.

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