Impact of select risk factors on treatment outcome in adults with candidemia

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Candidemia, Candida, Renal Replacement Therapy, Neutropenia, Fluconazole, Treatment Outcome, Treatment Failure, Intensive Care Units, Hospitals, University, Cohort Studies, North Carolina


Background: Studies examining relationships between patient-related factors and treatment outcome in patients with candidemia are limited and often based on all-cause mortality.

Objective: Our purpose was to examine the impact of concurrent renal replacement therapy (RRT) and other pre-specified factors on treatment outcome among adults with candidemia.

Methods: This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, single-center, case-cohort study included patients over 18 years of age admitted to Duke University Hospital between Jun 1, 2013 and Jun 1, 2017 with a blood culture positive for Candida spp. Treatment-, patient-, and disease-specific data were collected, and outcome (success/failure) determined 90 days after the index culture. An odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated for the following during therapy: receipt of RRT, fluconazole monotherapy regimen, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and neutropenia.

Results: Among the 112 encounters (from 110 unique patients) included, treatment failure occurred in 8/112 (7.1%). Demographics were comparable between outcome groups. Among 12 patients receiving concomitant RRT, only 1 patient failed therapy. With regard to treatment failure, no significant differences were observed with RRT (OR, 1.21; 95%CI, 0.14 – 10.75), fluconazole monotherapy regimen (OR, 1.59; 95%CI, 0.3-8.27), ICU stay (OR, 1.43; 95%CI, 0.32-6.29), and neutropenia (0 treatment failures).

Conclusions: Treatment failure, receipt of concomitant RRT, and neutropenia were infrequent in patients undergoing treatment for candidemia. In our cohort, exposure to RRT, a fluconazole monotherapy regimen, ICU stay, or neutropenia during treatment did not impact treatment outcome.

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