Pharmacy Practice <p><strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is a free full-text peer-reviewed journal with a scope on pharmacy practice. <strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is published quarterly. <strong>Pharmacy Practice <span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">does not charge any publication fee to the author</span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">s</span></span></strong>.</p> Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones Farmaceuticas en-US Pharmacy Practice 1885-642X <p>The authors hereby transfer, assign, or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice: (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print pr epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to <strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> with this document.</p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> Knowledge of pharmacists and parents towards antibiotic use in pediatrics: a cross-sectional study in Lebanon <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: to assess the knowledge of both parents and community pharmacists regarding antibiotics use and resistance in pediatrics in Lebanon.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and August 2017 in community pharmacies. A pre-established questionnaire targeting knowledge of parents and pharmacists regarding antibiotics use/misuse was carried out. An index of knowledge was computed to assess factors associated with good knowledge on antibiotics use/misuse.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The study showed that 28.7% of pharmacists did not know which factors may contribute to antimicrobial resistance. Concerning the misuse of antibiotics, pharmacists blamed at first parents (90.1%), at second level physicians (72.8%), and third themselves (59.4%). Furthermore, pharmacists believed that the socioeconomic problems of the country (86.1%), the level of resistance to the molecule of choice (80.8%), the lack of consultation time (71.2%) and the lack of national guidelines/recommendations (66.3%) might be additional factors contributing to antimicrobial resistance. In case of acute otitis media, the majority of pharmacists chose the correct treatment, dose and duration according to international guidelines; this was in contrast to the results obtained in case of pharyngitis. Female pharmacists had a significantly higher knowledge score compared to their male counterparts (ORa=2.51). Half of parents (42.6%) declared that antibiotics act against both viruses and bacteria, 55.9% still believe that the presence of fever requires the administration of antibiotics, 50% didn’t know the consequences of antibiotics misuse, 58.4% said that it is okay to give their child antibiotics without a physician's advice and/or based on a pharmacist’s recommendation, and 66.7% trusted the pharmacist in the antibiotic prescription. Parents with a university level of education or a master’s degree had significantly better knowledge compared to illiterate ones (ORa=9.04 and ORa=16.46, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Based on the results obtained, it would be necessary to implement educational campaigns in order to increase awareness on antibiotics misuse and resistance in pediatrics.</p> Lama Zahreddine Souheil Hallit Shadia Shakaroun Amal Al-Hajje Sanaa Awada Nathalie Lahoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-12 2018-08-12 16 3 1194 1194 Evaluation of a vancomycin dosing nomogram in obese patients weighing at least 100 kilograms <p><strong>Background</strong>: There remains variability in both practice and evidence related to optimal initial empiric dosing strategies for vancomycin.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Our primary objective was to describe the percentage of obese patients receiving vancomycin doses consistent with nomogram recommendations achieving targeted initial steady-state serum vancomycin concentrations. Secondary objectives were to describe the primary endpoint in subgroups based on patient weight and estimated creatinine clearance, to describe the rate of supratherapeutic vancomycin accumulation following an initial therapeutic trough concentration, and to describe the rate of vancomycin-related adverse events.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This single-center, IRB-approved, retrospective cohort included adult patients ≥ 100 kilograms total body weight with a body mass index (BMI) &gt;30 kilograms/m2 who received a stable nomogram-based vancomycin regimen and had at least one steady-state vancomycin trough concentration. Data collected included vancomycin regimens and concentrations, vancomycin indication, serum creatinine, and vancomycin-related adverse events. Patients were divided into two cohorts by goal trough concentration: 10-15 mcg/mL and 15-20 mcg/mL.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of 325 patients screened, 85 were included. Goal steady-state concentrations were reached in 42/85 (49.4%) of total patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Achievement of initial steady-state vancomycin serum concentrations in the present study (approximately 50%) was consistent with the use of published vancomycin dosing nomograms.</p> Riley D. Bowers April A. Cooper Catherine L. Wente Dustin T3 Wilson Steven W. Johnson Richard H. Drew ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 16 3 1204 1204 Falls in the elderly: assessment of prevalence and risk factors <p><strong>Background</strong>: Falls in elderly people can lead to serious health problems. There is limited knowledge about the prevalence of falls, risk factors and causes of falls in the United Arab Emirates.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the prevalence of falls among older adults aged 60 years and above and to determine the risk factors associated with falls.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous, 20-item questionnaire which was developed in English and Arabic to be delivered as a semi-structured interview. The pre-piloted questionnaire was distributed to 510 families with at least one elderly person. The study was conducted in Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from September to November 2017.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Participants were Arabs (368; 99.5%), living with family (339; 91.6%), females (256; 69.2%), married (240; 64.9%), holders of a university Bachelor’s degree (110; 29.7%), and unemployed (154; 41.6%). Almost half of the participants (188; 50.8%) had a fall in the past two years, and three quarters (141; 75%) of those claimed that their illness was the reason for their fall. The results indicate that female and 70 years and above old participants are more likely to experience falls than males and younger counterparts respectively. A larger proportion of elderly participants not taking medications did not experience falls, while those on 1-4 medications fallers were less than non-fallers. However as the number of medications increased to 5-8 and more than 8 the number of those experiencing falls was significantly higher than non-fallers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Falls are prevalent among the elderly population studied and efforts should be made to decrease the incidence of falls, identify those at risk and increase awareness about falls and their health consequences among the elderly and the general public.</p> Suleiman I. El-Sharif Alaa B. Al-Harbi Alaa M. Al-Shihabi Dana S. Al-Daour Rubian S. Sharif ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-08-13 2018-08-13 16 3 1206 1206 Erratum to: What drives using antibiotic without prescriptions? A qualitative interview study of university students in United Arab Emirates Khalid A. Al-Kubaisi Mark De Ste Croix Don Vinson Suleiman I. Sharif Abduelmula R Abduelkarem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-07-26 2018-07-26 16 3 1326 1326