Relationship between pharmacy residency examination rank and specialty choice for French pharmacy residency-admitted students

  • Olivier Fardel

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the link between the rank at the national pharmacy residency examination and the choice of pharmacy specialty for hospital residency-admitted French pharmacy students.

Methods: Examination ranks as well as the pharmacy residency specialty to which residency candidates are finally admitted were collected for all students (n=1948) having successfully passed the national French pharmacy residency examination over the period 2013-2016. Students were categorized by their pharmacy specialty for residency, i.e., “Medical Biology” (n=591), “Hospital Pharmacy” (n=1175) and “Pharmaceutical Innovation and Research” (n=182), and medians of examination ranks as well as limit ranks (the rank of the last admitted postulant) by specialty were compared.

Results:  Examination ranks for pharmacy residency-admitted students were found to significantly differ according to the nature of the specialty in which students were finally admitted. “Medical Biology” has the lowest examination ranks (and appears thus as the most selective specialty), followed by “Hospital Pharmacy” and ended by “Pharmaceutical Innovation and Research”, that has the highest examination ranks (and appears thus as the least selective specialty). Limit examination ranks were additionally shown to discriminate university hospitals in which residents were assigned. 

Conclusion: Specialty choice for hospital residency-admitted French pharmacy candidates is closely associated with their rank at the national pharmacy residency examination, which can be assumed as reflecting their academic level. By this way, an implicit hierarchy of French pharmacy residency specialties according to the academic level of postulants can likely be drawn.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Definitions of pharmacy residencies and fellowships. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1987;44(5):1142-1144.

2. Bright DR, Adams AJ, Ulbrich TR, Soric MM. Coaching for success: a residency search primer and update for preceptors and faculty. Hosp Pharm. 2015;50(6):467-476. doi: 10.1310/hpj5006-467

3. Johnson TJ. Pharmacist work force in 2020: implications of requiring residency training for practice. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65(2):166-170. doi: 10.2146/ajhp070231

4. Murphy JE, Nappi JM, Bosso JA, Saseen JJ, Hemstreet BA, Halloran MA, Spinler SA, Welty TE, Dobesh PP, Chan LN, Garvin CG, Grunwald PE, Kamper CA, Sanoski CA, Witkowski PL. American College of Clinical Pharmacy's vision of the future: postgraduate pharmacy residency training as a prerequisite for direct patient care practice. Pharmacotherapy. 2006 May;26(5):722-733. doi: 10.1592/phco.26.5.722

5. Zed PJ. Pharmacy practice residencies in Canada: opportunities and emerging challenges. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2009;62(1):7-11.

6. Truong C, Wyllie A, Bailie T, Austin Z. A needs assessment study of hospital pharmacy residency preceptors. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2012;65(3):202-208.

7. Bourdon O, Ekeland C, Brion F. Pharmacy education in France. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(6):132.

8. Masseyeff RF, Dreux C, Goussault Y. The impact of clinical biochemistry on university education in France. Clin Chim Acta. 1994;232(1-2):143-152.

9. Sanders GT, Beastall GH, Kohse KP, Zerah S, Jansen R, Koller U, Blaton V, Lund E, Parviainen M, Charret J, Gurr E, Nicholou H, Kenny D, Pazzagli M, Opp M, Willems H, Martins Mdo C, Queralto JM, Landin B, Yu A, McMurray J. The practice of clinical chemistry in the European Union. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002;40(2):196-204.

10. Slimano F, Gervais F, Masse C, Langree B. [Hospital pharmacy residency in France in 2014: to a recognition of the specialization?]. Ann Pharm Fr. 2014;72(5):317-324. doi: 10.1016/j.pharma.2014.02.005

11. ASHP Resident Matching Program. https://www.natmatch.com/ashprmp/ (accessed July 20, 2016).

12. Hillebrand K, Leinum CJ, Desai S, Pettit NN, Fuller PD. Residency application screening tools: A survey of academic medical centers. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015;72(11 Suppl 1):S16-S19. doi: 10.2146/ajhp150093

13. Kanji Z. Recent data from the canadian hospital pharmacy residency matching service. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2011;64(4):290.

14. Phillips JA, McLaughlin MM, Rose C, Gallagher JC, Gettig JP, Rhodes NJ. Student characteristics associated with successful matching to a PGY1 residency program. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016;80(5):84. doi: 10.5688/ajpe80584

15. Caballero J, Benavides S, Clauson KA, Hardigan PC, Steinberg JG, Gauthier TP, Sherman EM, Seamon MJ, Valdes J, Thomas JE. Role of Residency Interview Preparatory Activities as a Determinant on Pharmacy Residency Match Rates. J Pharm Pract. 2017;30(2):219-222. doi: 10.1177/0897190016632127

16. Bodenberg M, Linn B, Sprunger T, Shepler B. Using institutional track programs and block scheduling to help students prepare for postgraduate residency training. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015;72(22):1969-1973. doi: 10.2146/ajhp140680

17. Rider SK, Oeder JL, Nguyen TT, Rodis JL. A collaborative approach to residency preparation programming for pharmacy students. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2014;71(11):950-955. doi: 10.2146/ajhp130544

18. Lo SN, Pal J, Teoh CS, Shu J, Pang CL, Lau M, Leung H, Mendez Y, Rajagopalan V, Doroudgar S. Factors influencing pursuit of postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residency training. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2016;73(16):1210-1213. doi: 10.2146/ajhp151009

19. Dupuis S, Martel A, Arfa T, Valma J, Williamson DR, Perreault MM. Factors influencing fourth-year pharmacy students' decisions to pursue a hospital pharmacy residency. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2016;69(3):209-215.

20. Centre National de Gestion, concours donnant accès au 3ème cycle des études pharmaceutiques. http://www.cng.sante.fr/Concours-donnant-acces-au-3eme.html (accessed November 20, 2016).

21. Ordre National des Pharmaciens, les pharmaciens: panorama au 1er Janvier 2016. http://www.ordre.pharmacien.fr/content/download/272315/1437425/version/13/file/Demographie-2015_Brochure-VDEF.pdf (accessed August, 6, 2016).

22. Scott MG, Rifai N, Smith B, Oellerich M, Panteghini M, Apple F, Sikaris K, Young I. The changing face of laboratory medicine: a more service and less academically oriented profession? Clin Chem. 2015;61(2):322-329. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2014.230300

23. Fagg KL, Gordon P, Reib B, McGann JT, Higa TE, Kinniburgh DW, Cembrowski GS. Laboratory restructuring in metropolitan Edmonton: a model for laboratory reorganization in Canada. Clin Chim Acta. 1999;290(1):73-91.

24. Mercadier A. [Laboratory accreditation: a long and useful process]. Transfus Clin Biol. 2013;20(2):86-89. doi: 10.1016/j.tracli.2013.02.018

25. Brown D. From shortage to surplus: the hazards of uncontrolled academic growth. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(10):185.

26. Brown DL. A looming joblessness crisis for new pharmacy graduates and the implications it holds for the academy. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(5):90. doi: 10.5688/ajpe77590

27. Covvey JR, Cohron PP, Mullen AB. Examining pharmacy workforce issues in the United States and the United kingdom. Am J Pharm Educ. 2015;79(2):17. doi: 10.5688/ajpe79217

28. Dyer AR. Ethics, advertising and the definition of a profession. J Med Ethics. 1985;11(2):72-78.

29. Denzin NK, Mettlin CJ. Incomplete professionalization: The case of pharmacy. Soc Forces. 1968;46(3):375-381. doi: 10.2307/2574885

30. Adamcik BA, Ransford HE, Oppenheimer PR, Brown JF, Eagan PA, Weissman FG. New clinical roles for pharmacists: a study of role expansion. Soc Sci Med. 1986;23(11):1187-1200.

31. Carter BL. Evolution of clinical pharmacy in the USA and future directions for patient care. Drugs Aging. 2016;33(3):169-177. doi: 10.1007/s40266-016-0349-2

32. Perraudin C, Brion F, Bourdon O, Pelletier-Fleury N. The future of pharmaceutical care in France: a survey of final-year pharmacy students' opinions. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2011;11:6. doi: 10.1186/1472-6904-11-6

33. Mossialos E, Naci H, Courtin E. Expanding the role of community pharmacists: policymaking in the absence of policy-relevant evidence? Health Policy. 2013;111(2):135-148. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2013.04.003

34. Schlesselman L, Coleman CI. College and school of pharmacy characteristics associated with US News and World Report rankings. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(3):55. doi: 10.5688/ajpe77355
Published
2017-03-31
How to Cite
FARDEL, Olivier. Relationship between pharmacy residency examination rank and specialty choice for French pharmacy residency-admitted students. Pharmacy Practice, [S.l.], v. 15, n. 1, p. 912, mar. 2017. ISSN 1886-3655. Available at: <https://www.pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/912>. Date accessed: 25 nov. 2017.
Section
Original Research

Keywords

Internship, Nonmedical; Pharmacy Residencies; Pharmacy Service, Hospital; Pharmacists; France