Knowledge of self-care among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria

  • Idongesit L. Jackson
  • Maxwell O. Adibe
  • Matthew J. Okonta
  • Chinwe V. Ukwe
Keywords: Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Self Care, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Nigeria


Objective: To assess the knowledge of self-care practices, as well as factors responsible for such knowledge among type 2 diabetes patients in two states of Nigeria.

Methods: Descriptive, cross sectional survey research design was employed. The study was conducted on type 2 diabetes out-patients attending Endocrinology Clinic at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital (UUTH) and University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) between June 2012 and February 2013. The Diabetes Self-care Knowledge (DSCK-30) was used in evaluating knowledge of self-care practices. Socio-demographic information and respondents’ opinion on the possible barrier(s) to knowledge of self-care were also obtained. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 14.0. Statistical significance for all analyses was defined as a p value less than 0.05.

Results: A total of 303 out of 380 questionnaires distributed were completed and returned (response rate =79.7%). The majority of the study sample (79.5%) had 70% or more overall knowledge level about self-care. Self-care knowledge was associated with level of education (p<0.001), monthly income (p<0.001) and duration of diabetes (p=0.008). Negative attitude to disease condition was the only factor associated with knowledge (chi-square value at one degree of freedom =6.215; p=0.013).

Conclusion: Diabetes self-care knowledge was generally high among the population studied. Educational status, monthly income, duration of diabetes and negative attitude to disease condition predicted knowledge level.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Idongesit L. Jackson

Lecturer, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Nigeria.


1. World Health Organization. Prevention of diabetes mellitus. Report of a WHO Study Group No. 844. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994.

2. King H, Aubert RE, Herman WH. Global burden of Diabetes, 1995–2025. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(9):1414-1431.

3. International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas (5th ed.) 2012 update. Available from: (Accessed 5th November, 2013).

4. Kasper L. Harrison’s principle of internal medicine, 17th ed. Graw Hill Company: 2008.

5. Roglic G, Unwin N, Bennett PH, Mathers C, Tuomilehto J, Nag S, Connolly V, King H.The burden of mortality attributable to diabetes: Realistic estimates for the year 2000. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(9):2130-2135.

6. International Diabetes Federation 2011: Global burden of diabetes. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 5th edition. Available from: (Accessed 26th April, 2012).

7. Federal ministry of health in collaboration with WHO, EC, DFID. Standard treatment guidelines. Nigeria;2008:90-97.

8. Kaufman, A. Engaging Individuals with diabetes in self-care. MDPA Magazine 2012;20-21,29 Available from: (Accessed18th May, 2012).

9. Ruchirawanitchathep W. [Diabetic patients’ knowledge, attitude and self-care in Roumachi primary care unit]. Buddhachinaraj Medical Journal. 2008;25(1)60-66.

10. Inzucchi SE. Diabetic Facts and Guidelines.2011. Available from: (Accessed 26th April, 2012).

11. Department of Health 2002. National service framework for diabetes: Standards. London: Department of Health; 2002.

12. American Diabetes Association. Clinical practice recommendations 2000. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(suppl 1):S1-116.

13. Adibe MO, Aguwa CN, Ukwe CV. The construct validity of an instrument for measuring type 2 diabetes elf-care knowledge in Nigeria. Trop J Pharm Res. 2011;10(5):619-629.

14. Ekpenyong CE, Akpan UP, Ibu JO, Nyebuk DE. Gender and age specific prevalence and associated risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Uyo metropolis, south eastern Nigeria. Diabetol Croat. 2012;41(1):17-28.

15. Adisa R, Fakeye TO, Fasanmade A. Medication adherence among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in a tertiary healthcare setting in southwestern Nigeria. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2011;9(2):72-81.

16. Adebisi SA, Oghagbon K, Jimoh AK, Akande T, Olarinoye JK. Quality of diabetic care in a tertiary health care facility in Ilorin, Nigeria. Diabetol Croat. 2009;31:38-2.

17. Hassan AS, Al-Mousa ZA. Prevalence of obesity in patients attending diabetic care centres in Kuwait. Int Diabetes Digest. 1995;6:39-41.

18. Kamel NM, Badawy NA, El-Zeiny NA, Merdan IA. Sociodemographic determinants of management behaviour of diabetic patients Part II. Diabetics' knowledge of the disease and their management behaviour. East Mediterr Health J. 1999 Sep;5(5):974-983.

19. Burge S, White D, Bajorek E, Bazaldua O, Trevino J, Albright T, Wright F, Cigarroa L. Correlates of medication knowledge and adherence: Findings From the Residency Research Network of South Texas. Fam Med. 2005;37(10):712-718.

20. Marks J, Clark M. The hospital patient and his knowledge of the drugs he is taking. Int Nurs Rev. 1972;19(1):39-51.

21. Adibe MO, Aguwa CN, Ukwe CV, Okonta JM, Udeogaranya, Obinna P. Diabetes self-care knowledge among type 2 diabetic outpatients in south-eastern Nigeria. Int J Drug Dev Res. 2009;1(1):85-104.

22. Shah VN, Kamdar PK, Shah N. Assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practice of type 2 diabetes among patients of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2009;29(3):118-122. doi: 10.4103/0973-3930.54288

23. Nwankwo CH, Nandy B, Nwankwo BO. Factors influencing diabetes management outcome among patients attending government health facilities in South East, Nigeria. Int J Trop Med. 2010;5(2):28-36.

24. Dunning T. Medication knowledge and self-management by people with type 2 diabetes. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2005;23(1):7-14.

25. Egede L, Xiaobou Y, Zheng D, Silverstein M. The prevalence and pattern of complementary and alternative medicine use in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(2):324-329.

26. Dunning T. Complementary therapies and diabetes. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. 2003;9(2):74-80.

27. Moodley LM, Rambiritch V. An assessment of the level of knowledge about diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in a primary healthcare setting. SA Fam Pract. 2007;49(10):16.

28. Abdo NM, Mohamed ME. Effectiveness Of Health Education Program For Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Attending Zagazig University Diabetes Clinic, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2010;85(3-4):113-130.

29. Morowati A, Rouhani T. Diabetes self-care determinants model of diabetic patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center. Daneshvar Medicine. 2009 Jun-Jul;16:81. (Accessed 1th Aug, 2014

30. Ayele K, Tesfa B, Abebe L, Tilahun T, Girma E. Self Care Behavior among Patients with Diabetes in Harari, Eastern Ethiopia: The Health Belief Model Perspective. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35515. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035515

31. Thungathurthi S, Thungathurthi S, Kumar VG. Self care knowledge on diabetes among diabetic patients in Warangal region. Int J Life Sci Pharma Res. 2012;2(2):16-21. Available from: (accessed 18th May, 2012).

32. Prabhu SS, Ramya N. Non-adherence to diabetic treatment and its effect on glycaemic control, study at a rural hospital of Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. The Internet Journal of Health. 2011;2(2) Available from: (Accessed 26th April, 2013).

33. Thompson AV, Neil HA, Thorogood M, Flower GH, Mann JI. Diabetes mellitus: attitudes, knowledge and glycaemic control in a cross-sectional population. J R Coll Gen Pract. 1988;38(315):450-452.

34. Walker R, Whittlesea C. (eds.). Clinical pharmacy and therapeutics (4th edition). London: Churchill Livingstone; 2002.

35. Abedini Z. Study of knowledge and practice of patient self directed care among diabetic patients. QOM University of Medical Science Journal. 2008;2(2). Available from: (accessed 17th May, 2012).

36. Kamel NM, Badawy YA, el Zeiny NA, Merdan IA. Sociodemographic determinants of management behaviour of diabetic patients. Part 1. Behaviour of patients in relation to management of their disease. East Mediterr Health J. 1999;5(5):967-973.

37. Al-Qazaz HKh, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Sundram S, Al-Nuri R, Saleem F. Diabetes knowledge, medication adherence and glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Clin Pharm. 2011;33(6):1028-1035. doi: 10.1007/s11096-011-9582-2

38. T’ang J, Chan C, Chan NF, Ng CB, Tse K, Lau L. A survey of elderly diabetic patients attending a community clinic in Hong Kong. Patient Educ Couns. 1999;36(3):259-270.

39. Priyanka Raj CK, Angadi MM. Hospital-based KAP study on diabetes in Bijapur, Karnataka. Indian Journal of Medical Specialities. 2010. Available from (accessed 26th April, 2012).

40. Funnell MM, Haas LB. National standards for diabetes self-management education programs. Diabetes Care.1995;18(1):100-116.
Original Research