The inclusion of a business management module within the master of pharmacy degree: a route to asset enrichment?

  • Michael J. Davies
  • Hannah Fleming
  • Richard Jones
  • Kate Menzie
  • Christine Smallwood
  • Sebastian Surendar
Keywords: Education, Pharmacy, Students, Professional Competence, Pharmacy Administration, United Kingdom

Abstract

Background: Over the past decade the profession of pharmacy has steadily evolved. The New Pharmacy Contract exposed pharmacists to a fundamental change in traditional pharmacy business models.

Objective: This study will consider whether community pharmacists, pharmacy undergraduates and academic staff within the United Kingdom believe it would be beneficial to incorporate a business management module within the Master of Pharmacy (MPharm) undergraduate degree along with potential mechanisms of delivery.

Methods: Further to ethical approval, the questionnaire was distributed to UK registered pharmacists (n=600), MPharm undergraduates (n=441) and academic staff at Liverpool John Moores University (n=44). The questions were formatted as multiple choice questions, Likert scales or the open answer type. On questionnaire completion and return, data were analysed using simple frequencies, cross tabulations and non-parametric techniques in the SPSS (v18).

Results: The majority of pharmacists (84.9%) confirmed that business skills affect their everyday responsibilities to a considerable extent. A high proportion of undergraduate students (92.8%) believed that business management skills will impact on their future role. In total, 64.3% of this cohort declared that if a module were introduced they would study it. The majority of staff (79%) agreed that business skills are gaining increased importance within the field of pharmacy.

Conclusions: Data suggest that business skills are of relevance to the practice of pharmacy. Appropriate staff to deliver the taught material would include business owners / lecturers and teaching practitioners covering topics including management, leadership, interpersonal skills and regulation. We suggest the inclusion of a business module with the MPharm degree would be of great value in preparing individuals for practice within a modern day healthcare setting.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Wongwiwatthananukit S, Popowich NG. Applying the ARCS model of motivational design to pharmaceutical education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2000;64:188-196.

2. Moultry A. A mass merchandiser’s role in enhancing pharmacy students’ business plan development skills for medication therapy management services. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011;75(7):133. doi: 10.5688/ajpe757133.

3. Pollock AM, Richardson E. Community pharmacy: moving from dispensing to diagnosis and treatment. BMJ. 2010;340:c2298. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c2298.

4. Jesson JK, Langley CA, Wilson KA, Hatfield K. Science or practice? UK undergraduate experiences and attitudes to the MPharm degree. Pharm World Sci. 2006;28(5):278-283.

5. National Audit Office, NHS Pay Modernisation: New contracts for general practice services in England executive summary. London: The stationary office 28/02/2008. Available online at: http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/0708/new_contracts_for_general_prac.aspx (Accessed 23/10/2011).

6. Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee. The new NHS Community Pharmacy service - a summary of the structure. December 2004. Available online at: http://www.psnc.org.uk/data/files/PharmacyContract/pharmacy_contract_summary_dec_2004.pdf (Accessed 23/10/2011).

7. Feletto E, Wilson LK, Roberts AS, Benrimoj SI. Flexibility in community pharmacy: a qualitative study of business models and cognitive services. Pharm World Sci. 2010;32(2):130-138. doi: 10.1007/s11096-009-9355-3.

8. Department of Health. (2008). Pharmacy in England: Building on strengths- delivering the future. Available on line at : http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_083815 (Accessed 23/2/2012).

9. Bassey R. The business of pharmacy. PJ Online 2011. Available on line at: http://www.pjonline.com/blog_entry/the_business_of_pharmacy (Accessed 26/10/2011).

10. Pharmaceutical Services Negotiating Committee. Advanced Services Funding. 2011. Available on line at: http://www.psnc.org.uk/pages/advanced_services_fundinghtml.html (Accessed 4/3/2012).

11. McDonald R, Cheraghi-Sohi S, Sanders C, Ashcroft D. Professional status in a changing world: The case of medicines use reviews in English community pharmacy. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(3):451-458. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.04.021.

12. Latif A, Boardman H, Pollock K. The McDonaldisation of medicines use reviews. Int J Pharm Pract. 2009;4C(1):40.

13. Harding G, Wilcock M. Community pharmacists’ perceptions of medicines use reviews and quality assurance by peer review. Pharm World Sci. 2010;32(3):381-385. doi: 10.1007/s11096-010-9381-1.

14. Eades CE, Ferguson JS, O’Carroll RE. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:582. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-582.

15. General Pharmaceutical Council: Standards. Available on line at: http://www.pharmacyregulation.org/standards (Accessed 15/03/2012).

16. Richey-Smith C, Burgess J, Mehringer E. Affordable drug options: A survey of what colleges and schools of pharmacy are teaching. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning 2011;3(3):208-215.

17. Hermansen-Kobulnicky CJ, Moss CL. Pharmacy Student Entrepreneurial Orientation: A Measure to Identify Potential Pharmacist Entrepreneurs. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;68(5):113.

18. Frazier BJ, Niehm LS. Predicting the entrepreneurial intentions of non-business majors: A preliminary investigation. Proceedings of the USASBE/SBI Conference, Tucson, AZ. 2006: 14-17.

19. Desselle S, Zgarrick D. Pharmaceutical Care as a Management Movement. Pharmacy Management, Essentials For All Practice Settings. 2nd ed. United States of America: McGraw-Hill, 2009.

20. General Pharmaceutical Council. Standards for pharmacy owners, superintendent pharmacists and pharmacy professionals in positions of authority. 2010. Available from: http://www.pharmacypgd.co.uk/system/gphcstandards.pdf (Accessed 6/3/2012).

21. Bond C, Blenkinsopp A, Inch J, Celino G, Gray N. The Effect of the New Community Pharmacy Contract on the Community Pharmacy workforce. 2008. Available on line at: http://www.pprt.org.uk/Documents/TrustNews/The_effect_of_the_new_community_pharmacy_contract_on_the_community_pharmacy_workforce.pdf (Accessed 1/3/2012).

22. Chumney E, Ragucci K. Student Satisfaction and Academic Performance in a Dual PharmD/MBA Degree Program. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(2):29.

23. Austin Z. Learning Styles of Pharmacists: Impact on Career Decisions, Practice Patterns and Teaching Model Preferences. Pharm Educ 2004;4(1):13-22.

24. Latif DA. Model for Teaching the Management Skills Component of Managerial Effectiveness to Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ 2002;66:377-380.

25. Senft SL, Thompson C, Blumenschein K. Dual Degree Programs at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ 2008;72(1):12.

26. Calomo JM. Teaching Management in a Community Pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ 2006;70(2):41.

27. Hyvärinen ML, Tanskanen P, Katajavuori N, Isotalus P. A method for teaching communication in pharmacy in authentic work situations. Communication Education 2010;59(2):124-145.

28. Guile D, Ahamed F. Modernising The Pharmacy Curriculum. 2011. Available from: http://www.llakes.org (Accessed 25 February 2012).

29. Medway School of Pharmacy. Postgraduate Certificate/Diploma in General Pharmacy Practice. 2011. Available from: http://www.msp.ac.uk/studying/postgraduate/cert-gen-pharm-pract/index.html (Accessed 25/2/2012).

30. Siracuse MV, Schondelmeyer SW, Hadsall RS, Schommer JC. Assessing Career Aspirations of Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2004;68(3):75.

31. Granko RP, O'Neal BC, Fanikos J, Cohen BA, Cromes NV, Hicks DW, Thompson B, Poppe LB. The nonpharmacist business manager: Key qualifications and skills for success Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2011;68(19):1779-1782. doi: 10.2146/ajhp100675.

32. World Health Organisation. Developing Pharmacy Practice: a focus on patient care. Handbook 2006 edition. Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/WHO_PSM_PAR_2006.5.pdf (Accessed 14/3/2012).

33. Kerr RA, Beck DE, Doss J, Draugalis JR, Huang E, Irwin A, et al. Building a sustainable System of Leadership Development for Pharmacy: Report of the 2008-2009 Argus Commission. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(8):S5.

34. Royal Pharmaceutical Society. Leadership Competency Framework for Pharmacy Professionals, 2010. Available from: http://www.rpharms.com/pressreleases-pdfs/1445---rps-lcf-document---final.pdf (Accessed 14/03/2012).
Section
Original Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)