Primary healthcare policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in the United States
The United States (US) has a complex healthcare system with a mix of public, private, nonprofit, and for-profit insurers, healthcare institutions and organizations, and providers. Unlike other developed countries, there is not a single payer healthcare system or a national pharmaceutical benefits scheme/plan. Despite spending over USD 10,000 per capita in healthcare, the US is among the worst performers compared to other developed countries in outcomes including life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, safety during childbirth, and unmanaged chronic conditions (e.g., asthma, diabetes). Primary care is delivered by physicians and advanced practice providers (i.e., nurse practitioners and physician assistants) in a variety of settings including large health systems, federally qualified health centers or free clinics that provide care to the underserved, or specific facilities for veterans or American Indian and Alaska native peoples. Since 2010, primary care delivery has shifted toward providing patient-centered, coordinated, comprehensive care focused on providing proactive, rather than reactive, population health management, and on the quality, versus volume, of care. Community pharmacy comprises a mix of independently owned, chain, supermarket and mass merchant pharmacies. Community pharmacies provide services such as immunizations, medication therapy management, medication packaging, medication synchronization, point-of-care testing and, in specific states where legislation has been passed, hormonal contraception, opioid reversal agents, and smoking cessation services. There has been criticism regarding the lack of standard terminology for services such as medication synchronization and medication therapy management, their components and how they should be provided, which hampers comparability across studies. One of the main challenges for pharmacists in the US is the lack of provider status at the federal level. This means that pharmacists are not allowed to use existing fee-for-service health insurance billing codes to receive reimbursement for non-dispensing services. In addition, despite there being regulatory infrastructure in multiple states, the extent of service implementation is either low or unknown. Research found that pharmacists face numerous barriers when providing some of these services. State fragmentation and the lack of a single pharmacy organization and vision for the profession are additional challenges.
United States Census Bureau. U.S. and World population clock. Available at: https://www.census.gov/popclock/ (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
Peter G. Peterson Foundation. How does the U.S. healthcare system compare to other countries? Available at: https://www.pgpf.org/blog/2020/07/how-does-the-us-healthcare-system-compare-to-other-countries (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
Kaiser Family Foundation. Health insurance coverage of the total population. Available at: https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/total-population/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
Government Printing Office. Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. Available at: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-108publ173/pdf/PLAW-108publ173.pdf (accessed Jun 30, 2020).
Medicaid.gov. Prescription drugs. Available at: https://www.medicaid.gov/medicaid/prescription-drugs/index.html#:~:text=Although%20pharmacy%20coverage%20is%20an,within%20their%20state%20Medicaid%20programs (accessed Sep 10, 2020).
Kaiser Family Foundation. Key facts about the uninsured population. Available at: https://www.kff.org/uninsured/issue-brief/key-facts-about-the-uninsured-population/:~:text=In%202018,%2027.9%20million%20nonelderly,has%20grown%20by%201.2%20million (accessed Sep 10, 2020).
Rosenbaum S. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: implications for public health policy and practice. Public Health Rep. 2011;126(1):130-135. https://doi.org/10.1177/003335491112600118
Salsberg E, Martiniano R. Health care jobs projected to continue to grow far faster than jobs in the general economy. Available at: https://www.healthaffairs.org/do/10.1377/hblog20180502.984593/full/ (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
Association of American Medical Colleges. New AAMC report confirms growing physician shortage. Available at: https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/press-releases/new-aamc-report-confirms-growing-physician-shortage (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
American Association of Nurse Practitioners. NP Fact Sheet. Updated Feruary 2020. Available at: https://www.aanp.org/about/all-about-nps/np-fact-sheet (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Pharmacists — Job Outlook. Available at: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/pharmacists.htm#tab-6 (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Pharmacists — Summary. Available at: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/pharmacists.htm (accessed Jul 22, 2020).
Lebovitz L, Eddington ND. Trends in the pharmacist workforce and pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2019;83(1):7051. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7051
Phillips RL. Primary care in the United States: problems and possibilities. BMJ. 2005;331(7529):1400-1402. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.331.7529.1400
American Academy of Family Physicians. Primary Care. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/primary-care.html (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
American Academy of Family Physicians. Health Care for all: a framework for moving to a primary care-based health care system in the United States. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/health-care-for-all.html (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Physicians, American Osteopathic Association. Joint principles of the patient-centered medical home. Available at: https://www.aafp.org/about/policies/all/health-care-for-all.html (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Defining the PCMH. Available at: https://pcmh.ahrq.gov/page/defining-pcmh (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
McClellan M, McKethan AN, Lewis JL, Roski J, Fisher ES. A national strategy to put accountable care into practice. Health Aff (Millwood). 2010;29(5):982-990. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2010.0194
Centers of Medicare & Medicaid Services. About the program. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-for-Service-Payment/sharedsavingsprogram/about (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
Health Resources and Services Administration. Federally qualified health centers. Available at: https://www.hrsa.gov/opa/eligibility-and-registration/health-centers/fqhc/index.html (accessed Sep 1, 2020).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health Services. IHS Office of Quality. Available from: https://www.ihs.gov/office-of-quality/ (accessed Sep 1, 2020).
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. Veterans Health Administration. Available at: https://www.va.gov/health/ (accessed Sep 1, 2020).
The National Association of Free & Charitable Clinics. About us. Available at: https://www.nafcclinics.org/content/about-us (accessed Sep 1, 2020).
National Community Pharmacists Association. NCPA 2019 Digest: Changing the pharmacy payment model. Available at: http://www.ncpa.co/pdf/digest/2019/2019-digest.pdf (accessed Jul 2, 2020).
Department of Labor. Occupational outlook handbook, pharmacists. Available at: https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/pharmacists.htm (accessed Jul 1, 2020).
Qato DM, Zenk S, Wilder J, Harrington R, Gaskin D, Alexander GC. The availability of pharmacies in the United States: 2007-2015. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0183172. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183172
Kaiser Family Foundation. Number of retail prescription drugs filled at pharmacies by payer. Available at: https://www.kff.org/health-costs/state-indicator/total-retail-rx-drugs/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D (accessed Jul 1, 2020).
Drug Channels. The Top 15 U.S. Pharmacies of 2019: specialty drugs drive the industry’s evolution. Available at: https://www.drugchannels.net/2020/03/the-top-15-us-pharmacies-of-2019.html (accessed Sep 10, 2020).
Paavola A. Top 15 US pharmacies by total prescription revenue. Becker’s Hospital Review. Available at: https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/pharmacy/top-15-us-pharmacies-by-total-prescription-revenue.html (accessed Sep 11, 2020).
Mattingly AN, Mattingly TJ 2nd. Advancing the role of the pharmacy technician: A systematic review. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2018;58(1):94-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2017.10.015
Pharmacy Technician Certification Board. State regulations and map. Available at: https://www.ptcb.org/resources/state-regulations-and-map (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
Abramowitz PW. Achieving provider status for pharmacists. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2013;70(3):184. https://doi.org/10.2146/news130012
American Pharmacists Association. Provider status: What pharmacists need to know now. Available at: https://www.pharmacist.com/provider-status-what-pharmacists-need-know-now (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
National Community Pharmacists Association. 2019 state legislative wins for community pharmacists. Available at: http://www.ncpa.co/pdf/2019-state-legislative-wins-com-pharm.pdf (accessed Jul 30, 2020).
Gabay M. A step forward: review of the new California provider status law. Hosp Pharm. 2014;49(5):435-436. https://doi.org/10.1310/hpj4905-435
Community Pharmacy Enhanced Services Network. Available at: https://www.cpesn.com (accessed Jul 15, 2020).
Community Pharmacy Enhanced Services Network. Networks. Available at: https://www.cpesn.com/networks/ (accessed Jul 15, 2020).
Community Pharmacy Enhanced Services Network. Services available from CPESN network pharmacies. Available at: https://www.cpesn.com/payors/services-available-from-cpesn-network-pharmacies/ (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
Smith MG, Ferreri SP, Brown P, Wines K, Shea CM, Pfeiffenberger TM. Implementing an integrated care management program in community pharmacies: A focus on medication management services. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(2):229-235.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2016.12.074
Community Pharmacy Foundation. The Community Pharmacy Foundation and CPESN® USA announce a 5-year partnership to “flip the pharmacy” and transform community-based pharmacy practice. Available at: https://communitypharmacyfoundation.org/insider/email_details.asp?uid=7009FC82-21D7-4D01-96A1-52D1EC7050F2 (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
Flip the Pharmacy. Available at: https://www.flipthepharmacy.com (accessed Aug 29, 2020).
Community Pharmacy Foundation. CPF communications. Available at: https://www.communitypharmacyfoundation.org/insider/email_details.asp?uid=80F772F9-B11D-4286-BCE5-FD9F0208DD1D (accessed Sep 1, 2020).
Carter BL. Evolution of clinical pharmacy in the USA and future directions for patient care. Drugs Aging. 2016;33(3):169-177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40266-016-0349-2
Ferreri SP, Brown P, Clinard VB. Developing a process for expansion of community pharmacy residency sites. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2016;56(6):660-664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2016.06.014
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-clinical linkages for the prevention and control of chronic diseases: a practitioner's guide. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2016.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Community-clinical linkages for the prevention and control of chronic diseases: a pharmacy guide. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2017.
Sinclair J, Bentley OS, Abubakar A, Rhodes LA, Marciniak MW. Impact of a pharmacist in improving quality measures that affect payments to physicians. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019;59(4S):S85-S90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2019.03.013
Yon K, Sinclair J, Bentley OS, Abubakar A, Rhodes LA, Marciniak MW. Impact of quality measures performed through pharmacist collaboration with a primary care clinic. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;60(3S):S97-S102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.01.011
Clifton C, Phillips A, Abubakar A. Chronic care management: an emerging opportunity for pharmacists. Consult Pharm. 2018;33(11):611-618. https://doi.org/10.4140/tcp.n.2018.611.
CVS Pharmacy, Minute Clinic. Price list. Available from: https://www.cvs.com/minuteclinic/services/price-lists (accessed Sep 11, 2020).
CVS Pharmacy, Minute Clinic. Frequently asked questions. Available at: https://www.cvs.com/minuteclinic/info (accessed Aug 30, 2020).
CVS Pharmacy, Minute Clinic. Services. Available at: https://www.cvs.com/minuteclinic/services (accessed Aug 30, 2020).
Loria K. The future of pharmacy chains. Drug Topics. Available at: https://www.drugtopics.com/view/future-pharmacy-chains (accessed Sep 13, 2020).
Walgreens Newsroom. Walgreens and VillageMD to open 500 to 700 full-service doctor offices within next five years in a major industry first. Available at: https://news.walgreens.com/press-releases/walgreens-and-villagemd-to-open-500-to-700-full-service-doctor-offices-within-next-five-years-in-a-major-industry-first.htm (accessed Aug 30, 2020).
National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations. Available at: https://naspa.us (accessed Aug 30, 2020).
Adams AJ, Weaver KK. The continuum of pharmacist prescriptive authority. Ann Pharmacother. 2016;50(9):778-784. https://doi.org/10.1177/1060028016653608
APhA Foundation. Collaborative practice agreements (CPA) and pharmacists’ patient care services. Available at: http://www.aphafoundation.org/collaborative-practice-agreements (accessed Sep 18, 2017).
Weaver KK. Policy 101: Collaborative practice empowers pharmacists to practice as providers. Available at: https://www.pharmacist.com/policy-101-collaborative-practice-empowers-pharmacists-practice-providers (accessed Sep 18, 2020).
Sax B. Chain drugstores: providing effective patient care and professional development. Pharmacy Times.. Available at: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/career/2011/PharmacyCareers_Spring2011/ChainDrugstores-2011 (accessed Sep 13, 2020).
Simone A. National Chain Pharmacies: Expanding community care. pharmacy times. Available at: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/career/2014/PharmacyCareers_Fall2014/National-Chain-Pharmacies-Expanding-Community-Care (accessed Sep 13, 2020).
Pilisuk T, Goad J, Backer H. Vaccination delivery by chain pharmacies in California: Results of a 2007 survey. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010;50(2):134-139. https://doi.org/10.1331/japha.2010.09168
Anderson M. Overburdened pharmacists at top retail chains say they worry about patient safety. Available at: https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/pharmacy/overburdened-pharmacists-at-top-retail-chains-say-they-worry-about-patient-safety.html (accessed Sep 11, 2020).
Gabler E. How chaos at chain pharmacies is putting patients at risk. The New York Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/31/health/pharmacists-medication-errors.html (accessed Sep 11, 2020).
American Pharmacists Association, National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations. Pharmacist-administered vaccines. Available at: https://naspa.us/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/Pharmacist-Administered-Vaccines-June-2020-Final.pdf (accessed Jul 16, 2020).
Doucette WR, Mott DA, Kreling DH, et al. 2019 National pharmacist workforce study executive summary. Available at: https://www.aacp.org/sites/default/files/2020-03/2019_NPWS_Final_Report.pdf (accessed Sep 11, 2020)
Westrick SC, Patterson BJ, Kader MS, Rashid S, Buck PO, Rothholz MC. National survey of pharmacy-based immunization services. Vaccine. 2018;36(37):5657-5664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.027
Patel AR, Breck AB, Law MR. The impact of pharmacy-based immunization services on the likelihood of immunization in the United States. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2018;58(5):505-514.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2018.05.011
McConeghy KW, Wing C. A national examination of pharmacy-based immunization statutes and their association with influenza vaccinations and preventive health. Vaccine. 2016;34(30):3463-3468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.04.076
Hartzell VA. Reimbursement for service of administering vaccines, from an independent pharmacy perspective. Pharmacy Times. Available at: https://www.pharmacytimes.com/publications/supplementals/2017/ImmunizationSupplementJune2017/reimbursement-for-service-of-administering-vaccines-from-an-independent-pharmacy-perspective (accessed Jul 19, 2020).
Singhal PK, Zhang D. Costs of adult vaccination in medical settings and pharmacies: an observational study. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2014;20(9):930-936. https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2014.20.9.930
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Medication therapy management. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prescription-Drug-Coverage/PrescriptionDrugCovContra/MTM (accessed Jun 29, 2020).
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Prescription drug benefit manual Chapter 7 – medication therapy management and quality improvement program. Available at: http://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prescription-Drug-Coverage/PrescriptionDrugCovContra/Downloads/Chapter7.pdf (accessed Jun 29, 2020).
American Pharmacists Association; National Association of Chain Drug Stores Foundation. Medication therapy management in pharmacy practice: core elements of an MTM service model (version 2.0). J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008;48(3):341-353. https://doi.org/10.1331/japha.2008.08514
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2021 Medication therapy management program information and submission instructions. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/files/document/memo-contract-year-2021-medication-therapy-management-mtm-program-submission-v-052220.pdf (accessed Jun 29, 2020).
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. 2019 Medicare Part D medication therapy management (MTM) programs - fact sheet summary of 2019 MTM programs. Available from: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prescription-Drug-Coverage/PrescriptionDrugCovContra/Downloads/CY2019-MTM-Fact-Sheet.pdf (accessed Jun 29, 2020).
Farris KB, Ganther-Urmie JM, Fang G, Doucette WR, Brooks JM, Klepser DG, Fries DJ, Kuhle CL. Population-based medication reviews: a descriptive analysis of the medication issues identified in a medicare not-for-profit prescription discount program. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38(11):1823-1829. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1e204
Pestka DL, Zillich AJ, Farris KB, Adeoye OA, Snyder ME, Farley JF. Nationwide estimates of medication therapy management delivery under the Medicare prescription drug benefit. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;60(3):456-461. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2019.12.002
Coe AB, Adeoye-Olatunde OA, Pestka DL, Snyder ME, Zillich AJ, Farris KB, Farley JF. Patterns and predictors of older adult Medicare Part D beneficiaries' receipt of medication therapy management. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(9):1208-1214. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.12.007
Adeoye OA, Farley JF, Coe AB, Pestka DL, Farris KB, Zillich AJ, Snyder ME. Medication therapy management delivery by community pharmacists: insights from a national sample of Medicare Part D beneficiaries. J Am Coll Clin Pharm. 2019;2(4):373-382. https://doi.org/10.1002/jac5.1160
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DP18-1815: Improving the health of Americans through prevention and management of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/programs/stateandlocal/funded-programs/dp18-1815.html (accessed Aug 26, 2020).
Viswanathan M, Kahwati LC, Golin CE, Blalock SJ, Coker-Schwimmer E, Posey R, Lohr KN. Medication therapy management interventions in outpatient settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(1):76-87. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.5841
Gernant SA, Bacci JL, Upton C, Ferreri SP, McGrath S, Chui MA, Rickles NM, Smith M. Three opportunities for standardization: A literature review of the variation among pharmacists' patient care services terminology. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(6):766-775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.08.034
Michigan Pharmacists Association. Pharmacist medication therapy management billing guide. Available at: https://www.michiganpharmacists.org/Portals/0/docs/practice/Pharmacist%20Medication%20Therapy%20Management%20%20Billing%20Guide.pdf?ver=2019-06-28-082825-983 (accessed Jun 30, 2020).
Millonig MK. Mapping the route to medication therapy management documentation and billing standardization and interoperabilility within the health care system: meeting proceedings. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2009;49(3):372-382. https://doi.org/10.1331/japha.2008.09518
Dineen-Griffin S, Benrimoj SI, Garcia-Cardenas V. Primary health care policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in Australia. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2020;18(2):1967. https://doi.org/10.18549/pharmpract.2020.2.1967
Gastelurrutia MA, Faus MJ, Martínez-Martínez F. Primary health care policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in Spain. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2020;18(2):1999. https://doi.org/10.18549/pharmpract.2020.2.1999
Conn VS, Ruppar TM, Chan KC, Dunbar-Jacob J, Pepper GA, De Geest S. Packaging interventions to increase medication adherence: systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Med Res Opin. 2015;31(1):145-160. https://doi.org/10.1185/03007995.2014.978939
Watson LL. Pharmacy’s appointment based model: a prescription synchronization program that improves adherence. Washington, DC: APhA Foundation; 2013.
Bonner L, American Pharmacists Association. Med Sync catching on across Nation. Available at: https://www.pharmacist.com/article/med-sync-catching-across-nation (accessed Jun 30, 2020).
APhA Foundation. APhA Foundation white paper pharmacy’s appointment based model - a prescription synchronization program that improves adherence. Available at: https://www.aphafoundation.org/sites/default/files/ckeditor/files/ABMWhitePaper-FINAL-20130923(3).pdf accessed Jul 14, 2020).
Patti M, Renfro CP, Posey R, Wu G, Turner K, Ferreri SP. Systematic review of medication synchronization in community pharmacy practice. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019;15(11):1281-1288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.11.008
Hinson JL, Garofoli GK, Elswick BM. The impact of medication synchronization on quality care criteria in an independent community pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(2):236-240. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2016.11.008
Krumme AA, Glynn RJ, Schneeweiss S, Gagne JJ, Dougherty JS, Brill G, Choudhry NK. Medication synchronization programs improve adherence to cardiovascular medications and health care use. Health Aff (Millwood). 2018;37(1):125-133. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0881
Holdford D, Saxena K. Impact of Appointment-based medication synchronization on existing users of chronic medications. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2015;21(8):662-669. https://doi.org/10.18553/jmcp.2015.21.8.662
Holdford DA, Inocencio TJ. Adherence and persistence associated with an appointment-based medication synchronization program. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2013;53(6):576-583. https://doi.org/10.1331/japha.2013.13082
Kooner M, Joseph H, Griffin B, Lynch S, Vest K, Stewart-Lynch A, Weaver K. Hormonal contraception prescribing by pharmacists: 2019 update. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;[Ahead of Print]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.01.015
Clark P, Roberts N. Oregon’s pharmacist prescribing and billing: sentinel legislation— birth control prescribing. Eastern Medicaid Pharmacy Administrators Association and American Medicaid Pharmacy Administrators Association Meeting. Washington, D.C., 2018.
California Code, Welfare and Institutions Code - WIC § 14132.968. Available at: https://codes.findlaw.com/ca/welfare-and-institutions-code/wic-sect-14132-968.html (accessed Aug 28, 2020).
Frost TP, Klepser DG, Small DC, Doyle IC. Time and motion study of pharmacist prescribing of oral hormonal contraceptives in Oregon community pharmacies. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019;59(2):222-227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2018.12.015
Lu S, Rafie S, Hamper J, Strauss R, Kroon L. Characterizing pharmacist-prescribed hormonal contraception services and users in California and Oregon pharmacies. Contraception. 2019;99(4):239-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2018.12.002
Hilverding AT, DiPietro Mager NA. Pharmacists' attitudes regarding provision of sexual and reproductive health services. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(4):493-497. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2017.04.464
Vu K, Rafie S, Grindlay K, Gutierrez H, Grossman D. Pharmacist intentions to prescribe hormonal contraception following new legislative authority in California. J Pharm Pract. 2019;32(1):54-61. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190017737897
Stone RH, Rafie S, Griffin B, Shealy K, Stein AB. Pharmacist self-perception of readiness to prescribe hormonal contraception and additional training needs. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2020;12(1):27-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2019.10.005
National Community Pharmacists Association. Point-of-Care (POC) Testing. Available at: https://ncpa.org/point-care-poc-testing (accessed Aug 9, 2020).
Steltenpohl EA, Barry BK, Coley KC, McGivney MS, Olenak JL, Berenbrok LA. Point-of-care testing in community pharmacies: keys to success from Pennsylvania pharmacists. J Pharm Pract. 2018;31(6):629-635. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190017735243
Kirby J, Mousa N. Evaluating the impact of influenza and streptococcus point-of-care testing and collaborative practice prescribing in a community pharmacy setting. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;60(3S):S70-S75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.03.003
Klepser DG, Klepser ME, Murry JS, Borden H, Olsen KM. Evaluation of a community pharmacy-based influenza and group A streptococcal pharyngitis disease management program using polymerase chain reaction point-of-care testing. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019;59(6):872-879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2019.07.011
Klepser DG, Klepser ME, Smith JK, Dering-Anderson AM, Nelson M, Pohren LE. Utilization of influenza and streptococcal pharyngitis point-of-care testing in the community pharmacy practice setting. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2018;14(4):356-359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.04.012
Weidle PJ, Lecher S, Botts LW, Jones L, Spach DH, Alvarez J, Jones R, Thomas V. HIV testing in community pharmacies and retail clinics: a model to expand access to screening for HIV infection. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2014;54(5):486-492. https://doi.org/10.1331/japha.2014.14045
Collins B, Bronson H, Elamin F, Yerkes L, Martin E. The "no wrong door" approach to hiv testing: results from a statewide retail pharmacy-based HIV testing program in Virginia, 2014-2016. Public Health Rep. 2018;133(2_suppl):34S-42S. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033354918801026
Dong BJ, Lopez M, Cocohoba J. Pharmacists performing hepatitis C antibody point-of-care screening in a community pharmacy: A pilot project. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2017;57(4):510-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2017.04.463
Brewer A, Hanna C, Eckmann L, Schadler A, Divine H. Patient awareness, willingness, and barriers to point-of-care hepatitis C screening in community pharmacy. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2018;58(4S):S69-S72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2018.04.031
Kehrer JP, James DE. The role of pharmacists and pharmacy education in point-of-care testing. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016;80(8):129. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe808129
Goode JV, Owen J, Page A, Gatewood S. Community-based pharmacy practice innovation and the role of the community-based pharmacist practitioner in the United States. Pharmacy (Basel). 2019;7(3):106. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030106
National Alliance of State Pharmacy Associations. Pharmacist prescribing: naloxone. Available at: https://naspa.us/resource/naloxone-access-community-pharmacies/ (accessed Aug 9, 2020).
Puzantian T, Gasper JJ. Provision of naloxone without a prescription by California pharmacists 2 years after legislation implementation. JAMA. 2018;320(18):1933-1934. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.12291
Guy GP Jr, Haegerich TM, Evans ME, Losby JL, Young R, Jones CM. Vital signs: pharmacy-based naloxone dispensing - United States, 2012-2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;68(31):679-686. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6831e1
Bakhireva LN, Bautista A, Cano S, Shrestha S, Bachyrycz AM, Cruz TH. Barriers and facilitators to dispensing of intranasal naloxone by pharmacists. Subst Abus. 2018;39(3):331-341. https://doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2017.1391924
Muzyk A, Smothers ZPW, Collins K, MacEachern M, Wu LT. Pharmacists' attitudes toward dispensing naloxone and medications for opioid use disorder: A scoping review of the literature. Subst Abus. 2019;40(4):476-483. https://doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2019.1616349
American Lung Association. Indiana’s standing order for tobacco cessation a case study. Available at: https://www.lung.org/getmedia/a673abfe-eb7e-4801-a374-01724df6ca6c/standing-order-indiana-case-study-final.pdf (accessed Aug 30, 2020).
Adams AJ, Hudmon KS. Pharmacist prescriptive authority for smoking cessation medications in the United States. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2018;58(3):253-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2017.12.015
Donabedian A. The quality of care. How can it be assessed? JAMA. 1988;260(12):1743-1748. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.260.12.1743
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Fact sheet - 2020 Part C and D star ratings. Available at: https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Prescription-Drug-Coverage/PrescriptionDrugCovGenIn/Downloads/2020-Star-Ratings-Fact-Sheet-.pdf (accessed Jun 29, 2020).
Pharmacy Quality Alliance. About PQA. Available at: https://www.pqaalliance.org/our-story (accessed Jul 29, 2020).
Pharmacy Quality Alliance. PQA Measures Overview. Available at: https://www.pqaalliance.org/assets/Measures/2020_PQA_Measures_Overview.pdf (accessed Jul 29, 2020).
Amplicare. Quality Metrics for drug plans are impacting pharmacies’ bottom line—here’s how to turn that around. Available at: https://amplicare.com/articles/quality-metrics-for-drug-plans-are-impacting-pharmacies-bottom-line-heres-how-to-turn-that-around/ (accessed Aug 26, 2020).
American Pharmacists Association. Health plan starts P4P program for community pharmacies. Available at: https://www.pharmacist.com/article/health-plan-starts-p4p-program-community-pharmacies?is_sso_called=1 (accessed Aug 9, 2020).
Littauer SL, Dixon DL, Mishra VK, Sisson EM, Salgado TM. Pharmacists providing care in the outpatient setting through telemedicine models: a narrative review. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2017;15(4):1134. https://doi.org/10.18549/pharmpract.2017.04.1134
Lester CA, Coe AB, Dorsch MP, Farris KB, Flynn AJ. A learning pharmacy practice enabled by the pharmacists' patient care process. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;[Ahead of Print]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.05.013
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pharmacy resources field notes: Michigan Medicine and Meijer Pharmacy program. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/dhdsp/docs/Michigan_Medicine_Field-Notes-508.pdf (accessed Jul 29, 2020).
Farris KB, Mitrzyk BM, Batra P, Peters J, Diez HL, Yoo A, McKay K, Friend K, Danko L, Waber R, Marshall VD, Choe HM. Linking the patient-centered medical home to community pharmacy via an innovative pharmacist care model. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019;59(1):70-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2018.09.009
Coons JC, Patel R, Coley KC, Empey PE. Design and testing of Medivate, a mobile app to achieve medication list portability via Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019;59(2S):S78-S85.e2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2019.01.001
Healthcare Weekly. 6 ways Amazon plans to disrupt the pharmacy business. Available at: https://healthcareweekly.com/amazon-pharmacy/ (accessed Aug 26, 2020).
Farr C. Tech giants have big ambitions in health, but do best when they stick to what they know. CNBC. Available at: https://www.cnbc.com/2019/12/31/amazon-google-apple-and-other-giants-humbled-by-health-tech-failures.html (accessed Jul 29, 2020).
Fleagle Miller R, Cesarz J, Rough S. Evaluation of community pharmacy tech-check-tech as a strategy for practice advancement. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2018;58(6):652-658. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2018.06.018
Wheeler JS, Gray JA, Gentry CK, Farr GE. Advancing pharmacy technician training and practice models in the United States: Historical perspectives, workforce development needs, and future opportunities. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(4):587-590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.05.005
Bright D, Adams AJ. Pharmacy technician-administered vaccines in Idaho. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2017;74(24):2033-2034. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp170158
Wosik J, Fudim M, Cameron B, Gellad ZF, Cho A, Phinney D, Curtis S, Roman M, Poon EG, Ferranti J, Katz JN, Tcheng J. Telehealth transformation: COVID-19 and the rise of virtual care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020;27(6):957-962. https://doi.org/10.1093/jamia/ocaa067
Milman T, Joundi RA, Alotaibi NM, Saposnik G. Clinical inertia in the pharmacological management of hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(25):e11121. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000011121
Kennie NR, Schuster BG, Einarson TR. Critical analysis of the pharmaceutical care research literature. Ann Pharmacother. 1998;32(1):17-26. https://doi.org/10.1177/106002809803200101
Salgado TM, Moles R, Benrimoj SI, Fernandez-Llimos F. Pharmacists' interventions in the management of patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27(1):276-292. https://doi.org/10.1093/ndt/gfr287
Charrois TL, Durec T, Tsuyuki RT. Systematic reviews of pharmacy practice research: methodologic issues in searching, evaluating, interpreting, and disseminating results. Ann Pharmacother. 2009;43(1):118-122. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1l302
Rotta I, Salgado TM, Felix DC, Souza TT, Correr CJ, Fernandez-Llimos F. Ensuring consistent reporting of clinical pharmacy services to enhance reproducibility in practice: an improved version of DEPICT. J Eval Clin Pract. 2015;21(4):584-590. https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.12339
Bauer MS, Damschroder L, Hagedorn H, Smith J, Kilbourne AM. An introduction to implementation science for the non-specialist. BMC Psychol. 2015;3(1):32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-015-0089-9
Fogarty International Center. Toolkit part 1: Implementation science methodologies and frameworks. Available at: https://www.fic.nih.gov/About/center-global-health-studies/neuroscience-implementation-toolkit/Pages/methodologies-frameworks.aspx (accessed Jul 28, 2020).
Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The authors hereby transfer, assign or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print or epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to Pharmacy Practice with this document.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Author Self-Archiving Policy
Pharmacy Practice permits and encourages authors to post and archive the final PDFs of their respective articles submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit its publication in this journal.