Prevalence and control of hypertension in a Niger Delta semi urban community, Nigeria
Background: Hypertension is a public health problem worldwide, but the prevalence in Amassoma, Southern Ijaw Local Government Area is not known.
Objective: To investigate the prevalence of hypertension in the locality and the extent of control in diagnosed cases.
Methods: It is a prospective study involving interviewing. Four hundred adults aged 20 years and above selected through stratified random sampling across the various compounds called “AMA”; a unit of settlement comprising extended families of common ancestors. A self-developed, validated and pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire on demographics, predisposing factors, and medication history was used. In addition, measurement of respondents’ blood pressure, weight and height was carried out. The Body Mass Index calculated and the data were appropriately analysed.
Results: The response rate of questionnaire distribution was 100.0% being interviewer administered alongside weight, height and blood pressure measurement. Majority of respondents were female. Almost half of respondents (46.5%) had their BMI above normal, 15.3% (61) of which falls within the obese region (>30.0kg/m2). The mean (SD) systolic blood pressure among males was 133.3 (3.2) mmHg and that of females was 127.4 (3.0) while the mean (SD) diastolic blood pressures were 86.2 (1.7) and 83.9 (2.4) for males and females respectively. Crude prevalence rate of hypertension in the community was 15.0% (60) out of which 13.8 % (55) were previously diagnosed. The hypertension was that of Stage I in 11.5% (46) and Stage II in 3.5% (14). Hypertension prevalence was slightly higher in males (18.8%) than that of the females (12.5%) (p= 0.0889), Relative Risk (RR)=1.500 [95%CI 0.9422:2.388]. The prevalence rate among 40 years and above was 41.6% (42/101) who also constituted 70.0% (42/60) of participants with hypertension in the survey and 10.5% (42/400) of the total. Of the previously diagnosed cases of hypertension, only 31% (17/55) were taking their drugs during the survey and only 12.7% (07/55) had regular adherence to medication and adequate BP control was achieved in 7.3% (04/55). Majority of the patients on drugs (21.8%) (12/55) were either taking methydopa as monotherapy or in combination with amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide. Other drugs being taken by patients include lisinopril, propranolol, amlodipine, atenolol, nifedipine and low dose aspirin.
Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in the semi urban community is 15.0% with a pre-hypertension in another 23.5%. There was poor control of blood pressure among previously hypertensive patients.
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