A transition from the BPharm to the PharmD degree in five selected countries
This review focuses on the studies and opinions around issues of transition from the BPharm to the PharmD degree in the U.S., Japan, South Korea, Pakistan and Thailand.
The transition to the clinically orientated PharmD degree in many countries was seen to be a means of developing the profession. However, some countries have both clinically-oriented and pharmaceutical sciences-oriented PharmD programme that are designed to meet the needs of their countries. Each country created a different process to handle the transition to an all-PharmD programme, but mostly had the process of school accreditation mandated by the regulatory bodies. The main barrier to the transition in most of the countries was the issue of educational quality. A set of indicators is needed to measure and monitor the impact/outcome of the PharmD degree.
Each country has different needs due to the different contexts of health care systems and the scope of pharmacy practice. In order to increase their chances of benefiting from the new programme, academic leaders should critically assess their countries’ needs before deciding to adopt a PharmD programme.
Pierce D, Peyton C. A historical cross-disciplinary perspective on the professional doctorate in occupational therapy. Am J Occup Ther. 1999;53(1):64-71. https://doi.org/10.5014/ajot.53.1.64
Francisco G. Doctor of Pharmacy, In: Dipiro J, ed. Encyclopedia of clinical pharmacy. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2003.
Babar Z, Scahill SL, Akhlaq M, Garg S. A bibliometric review of pharmacy education literature in the context of low-to middle-income countries. Currents Pharm Teach Learn.2013;5(3):218-232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2013.01.001
Anderson C, Futter B. PharmD or needs based education: which comes first? Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(5):92. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj730592
Alhamoudi A, Alnattah A. Pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The past, the present, and the future. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2018;10(1):54-60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2017.09.014
Bates I, Bruno A, Arakawa N. Global education description: 2013 FIPEd Global Education Report. 2013 FIPEd Global Education Report. http://www.fip.org/files/fip/FIPEd_Global_Education_Report_2013 (accessed Mar 06, 2014).
Koleba T, Marin JG, Jewesson PJ. Entry-level PharmD degree programs in Canada: some facts and stakeholder opinions. Can Pharm J.2006;139(6):42-50. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F171516350613900608
Opare A. All hail the first batch of PharmD graduates! https://psgh.org/news/409429/All-hail-the-first-batch-of-PharmD-graduates.htm (accessed Oct 23, 2018).
Ekpenyong A, Udoh A, Kpokiri E, Bates I. An analysis of pharmacy workforce capacity in Nigeria. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2018;11:20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-018-0147-9
Hassain A, Jamshed S. Pharmacy practice in Pakistan In: Fathelrahman AI, Ibrahim MIM, Wertheimer AI, eds. . Pharmacy practice in developing countries: achievements and challenges. London: Elsevier; 2016.
Wibulpolprasert S. Thailand Health Profile 2008-2010. Bangkok: Printing Press, The War Veterans Organization of Thailand; 2010.
Marriott JL. Comparison of International pharmacy curricula. www.monash.edu/_data/assets/pdf_file/0006/178404/marriott-01.pdf (accessed Apr 1, 2016).
Sripanidkulchai B. Current pharmacy education and comunity pharmacy services in Japan. Khon Kaen:Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University; 2012.
Sripanidkulchai B. The globalization and standard of pharmacy education in Thailand. www.thaipharma.net/images/intro_1181485913/AGM_3.pdf (accessed Apr 27, 2016).
Kim E, Ghimire S. Career perspectives of future graduates of the newly implemented 6-year pharmacy educational system in South Korea. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(2):37. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77237
General Pharmaceutical Council. Future pharmacists: standards for the initial education and training of pharmacists. http://www.pharmacyregulation.org/sites/default/files/GPhC_Future_Pharmacists.pdf (accessed April 4, 2016).
Murtaza G, Kousar R, Azhar S, Khan SA, Mahmood Q.What do the hospital pharmacists think about the quality of pharmaceutical care services in a Pakistani province? a mixed methodology study. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:756180. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/756180
Jamshed S, Babar ZU, Masood I. The PharmD degree in developing countries. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007;71(6):125. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7106125
Bright DR, Adams AJ, Black CD, Powers MF. The mandatory residency dilemma: parallels to historical transitions in pharmacy education. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44(11):1793-1799. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1P394
Yoo S, Song S, Lee S, Kwon K, Kim E.Addressing the academic gap between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs in South Korea. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78(8):149. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe788149
Hadi MA, Hughes J. Broader perspective needed on the PharmD degree in Pakistan. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(6):114.
Ahmed SI, Hassali MA. The controversy of PharmD degree. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008 Jun 15;72(3):71. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj720371
Khan T, Anwar M, Ahmed KM. A perspective for clinical pharmacy curriculum development and validation in Asian developing nations. J Young Pharm. 2011;3(2):151-154. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1483.80304
Amir M. The after effects of implementing the PharmD degree in developing countries. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011;75(6):124. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe756124
Frankel G, Louizos C, Austin Z. Canadian educational approaches for the advancement of pharmacy practice. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78(7):143. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe787143
Kishi DT. Japanese pharmaceutical education: implications for Americans teaching Japanese pharmacy students. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2001;58(11):1032-1035. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/58.11.1032
Knapp DA. The rocky road to educational change: adopting the entry-level PharmD at Maryland, 1989-93. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2011;51(6):692-701. https://doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2011.10156
Akaho E, MacLaughlin EJ, Takeuchi Y. Comparison of prescription reimbursement methodologies in Japan and the United States. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2003;43(4):519-526. https://doi.org/10.1331/154434503322226275
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. What's Medicare? www.medicare.gov/sign-up-chage-plans/decide-how-to-get-medicare/whats-medicare/what-is-medicare.html (accessed May 16, 2016).
Watanabe T, Ohtani Y, Yamamoto T, Nemoto Y, Ida Y, Bachynsky JA. The case for a shift in pharmacists' activities and pharmacy education: based on those in the English speaking Western countries. Yakuga Zasshi.2005;125(3):283-292.
Madiha M, Yang C. Curriculum and pharmacy practice experience offered for Pharm-D in Pakistan: needs and possiblities. Int Curr Pharm J.2014;3(8):313-317. https://doi.org/10.3329/icpj.v3i8.19406
Anderson C, Bates I, Brock T, Brown AN, Bruno A, Futter B, Rennie T, Rouse MJ. Needs-based education in the context of globalization. Am J Pharm Educ. 2012;76(4):56. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe76456
Hadi MA. PharmD and needs-based education: alternate view. Am J Pharm Educ 2010;74(7):125.
Hill DS. The “Entry-Level” Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) Degree Issue for Schools of Pharmacy in Canada: Association of Faculties of Pharmacy of Canada: Background Paper; 1999.
Gans JA. Freedom of opportunity: the PharmD degree. Am Pharm.1990;30(6):24-7.
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Commission to implement change in pharmaceutical education, background paper 3. www.aacp.org/resources/historicaldocuments/Documents/COMMISSPOSPAPER3.pdf (accessed Apr 4, 2016).
Elenbass RM, Worthen DB. Clinical pharmacy in the United States: Transformation of a profession. Lenexa: ACCP; 2009.
Carter BL. Evolution of clinical pharmacy in the USA and future directions for patient care. Drugs Aging. 2016;33(3):169-177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40266-016-0349-2
Boss MA, Lowther MA. Factors influencing curriculum change in professional programs. In: The Annual Meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE). Pennsylvania. 1993.
Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Health-Syst Pharm.1990;47(3):533-543.
Marcellus G. State university system of Florida: Pharmacy program review. 1995:State Univ. System of Florida, Tallahassee.
Barnett C, Matthews H. Practice patterns of BS, post-baccalaureate PharmD and entry-level PharmD graduates of one school of pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ.1992;56(4):367-373.
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Scheckelhoff DJ, Bush CG; American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Flynn AA, MacKinnon GE 3rd, Myers CE, Kahaleh AA, Knapp KK, Meier JL, Schwinghammer TL, Sheaffer SL, Thompson BJ, McCluskey CF 3rd. Capacity of hospitals to partner with academia to meet experiential education requirements for pharmacy students. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008 Nov 1;65(21):e53-e71. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp080150e
Lovett AW, Peasah SK, Xiao H, Ryan GJ, Perkins P. Introduction to pharmacy profession. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2014.
Kreling DH, Doucette WR, Chang EH, Gaither CA, Mott DA, Schommer JC. Practice characteristics of Bachelor of Science and Doctor of Pharmacy degreed pharmacists based on the 2009 national workforce survey. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(9):159. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7409159
Nemire RE, Meyer SM. Educating students for practice: Educational outcomes and community experience. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(1):20. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj700120
Center for the Advancement of Pharmaceutical Education Advisory Panel on Education Outcomes. Educational Outcomes 2004. http://www.aacp.org/resources/education/Documents/CAPE2004.pdf (accessed Apr 5, 2016).
Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Accreditation standards and key elements for the professional program in pharmacy leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy degree: Standard 2016. www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/Standards2016FINAL.pdf (accessed April 5, 2016).
Islam MA, Khan SA, Sunaseelan S, Talukder R. Specialty education for student pharmacist and PharmD graduates in U.S. colleges and schools of pharmacy. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2016;8(2):184-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2015.12.001
Engels MJ, Flint NB, Corbett SM, Mieure KD, Newkirk G, Phelps P, Price-Goodnow V, Williams J, Brummond PW. Overcoming the pharmacy residency capacity challenge as 2020 draws near. Curr Pharm Teach Learn.2015;7(3):405-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2014.12.011
Kurosawa N. Continuing pharmacy education in Japan. http://www.accp.com/international/index.aspx?iss=0511&art=3 (accessed Apr 22, 2016).
Dolder C, Nakagawa S, Sakamaki A, Supernaw R. Changes in Japanese pharmacy education and practice. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65(3):201-202.
Kanke M. Pharmacy education in Asia and the Asian Assoc of Schools of Pharmacy. http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/global/Documents/Pharmacy%20Education%20in%20Asia.pdf (accessed Jul 12, 2014).
Inoue K. Accreditation of pharmacy education in Japan. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007;127(6):953-972. https://doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.127.953
Inoue Y, Morita Y, Takikawa M, Takao K, Kanamoto I, Sugibayashi K.Future expectations for Japanese pharmacists as compared to the rest of the world. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2015;11(3):448-458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2014.08.007
Watanabe T, Ohtani Y, Yamamoto T, Nemoto Y, Ida Y, Bachynsky JA.Pharmaceutical terms reflecting the change in practice in Japan. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2005;125(3):271-281. https://doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.125.271
Cho H-K. Challenges and opportunities posed by a new prescription law in South Korea. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2002;59(18):1780-1782. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/59.18.1780
Choi SE. Development of new pharmacy degrees from the Korea University's perspective. www.archive.u21health.org/sites/u21health.org/files/Pharmacy%20Education%20in%20KU_1.pdf (accessed Apr 25,2016).
Korean Pharmaceutical Association. 6-year program at colleges of pharmacy (2-year + 4-year system). www.eng.kpanet.or.kr/pharmacist/pharmacist04.jsp (accessed Apr 25, 2016).
Khan TM. Challenges to pharmacy and pharmacy practice in Pakistan. Australas Med J.2011;4(4):230-235. https://doi.org/10.4066%2FAMJ.2011.488
The Pakistan Pharmacy Council. Aims & objectives of the PharmD degree. www.pharmacycouncil.org.pk/doc/Pharm%20D%20Curriculum%20Final%202013.pdf (accessed Apr 4, 2016).
Madiha, Yang CQ. Curriculum and pharmacy practice experience offered for Pharm-D in Pakistan: needs and possiblities. Int Curr Pharm J. 2014;3(8):313-317.
Jamshed S. PharmD in Pakistan: a tag or a degree? Am J Pharm Educ 2009;73(1):13.
Ghayur MN. Pharmacy education in developing countries: need for a change. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(4):94.
FIP (International Pharmaceutical Federation). Global pharmacy workforce intelligence: trends report. http://www.fip.org/educationreports (accessed Apr 25,2016).
Khan MU, Ahmad A, Hussain K, Salam A, Hasnain ZU, Patel I. The need for redesigned pharmacy practice courses in Pakistan: the perspectives of senior pharmacy students. J Educ Eval Health Prof. 2015;12:27. https://doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2015.12.27
Chanakit T, Low BY, Wongpoowarak P, Moolasarn S, Anderson C. Does a transition in education equate to a transition in practice? Thai stakeholder’s perceptions of the introduction of the Doctor of Pharmacy programme. BMC Med Educ. 2015;15:205. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-015-0473-4
Sumpradit N, Suttajit S, Hunnangkul S, Wisaijohn T, Putthasri W. Comparison of self-reported professional competency across pharmacy education programs: a survey of Thai pharmacy graduates enrolled in the public service program. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2014;5:347-357. https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S67391
Suttajit S, Suwannaprom P, Supapaan T, Eakanunkul S, Tangkiatkumjai M, Kongkaew C, Anderson C, Wongpoowarak P. Are we on the right track? Answers from a national survey of Thai graduates' perceptions during the transition to the 6-year PharmD program. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2018;9:713-722. https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S173014
Karnwareetip S, Surawichai A, Ruanta Y. Health consumer protection officers’ perspective toward the problems and the mechanism of consumer protection involving health products in upper northern thailand. Mahidol Univ J Pharm Sci 2016;43(2):63-67.
WHO. United States of America: WHO statistical profile. www.who.int/gho/countries/usa.pdf?ua=1 (accessed Apr 28, 2016).
Teeters J, Brueckl M, Burns A, Flynn A. Pharmacy residency training in the future: a stakeholder's roundtable discussion. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2005;62(17):1817-1820. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp050195
National Institution for Academic Degrees and University Evaluation. Overview: quality assurance system in Higher Education, Japan. http://www.niad.ac.jp/english/overview_jp_e_ver2.pdf (accessed May 10, 2016).
Chun CB, Kim SY, Lee JY, et al. Republic of Korea: health system review. www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/101476/E93762.pdf (accessed Apr 27, 2016).
Ibrahim MIM, Fathelrahman AI, Wertheimer A I. Comparative analysis and conclusion. In: Fathelrahman AI, Ibrahim MIM, Wertheimer AI, eds. Pharmacy practice in developing countries: achievements and challenges. Elsevier: London; 2016.
Aslam N, Ahmed KZ. Clinical pharmacy clerkship in Pakistan: a leap from paper to practice. Inov Pharm. 2011;2(2):39.
Pharmacy Council of Pakistan. Recognition Status of Pharmacy Institutions. Accessed 28 Oct, 2018.
Prapunwattana M. Thailand pharmacy professional assembly (99 years), In: Nonthaburi. The Pharmacy Council of Thailand; 2012.
International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). FIP Global Pharmacy: Workforce report, Gal D, Editor. 2012, The Hague, FIP; 2012.
Sugibayashi K. Harmonization of Asia Pacific Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Education, in 5th Asia Pacific Pharmacy Education Workshop. 2014, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.
The Pharmacy Council of Thailand. The Pharmacy Council Announcement No 12/2008: Accreditation criteria for Faculty of Pharmacy and pharmacy curriculum. http://pharmacycouncil.org/share/file/file_258.pdf (accessed Jun 25, 2015).
Pongcharoensuk P, Prakongpan S. Centennial pharmacy education in Thailand. JAASP. 2012;1(1):8-15.