Gender, age, and pharmacists’ job satisfaction
A comprehensive literature review was conducted on the concept of job satisfaction in the pharmacist workforce field and the facets it comprises, as well as its measurement, aiming to (i) review the nature, mechanisms, and importance of job satisfaction in the context of the pharmacist workforce, (ii) survey some of the most salient facets that configure job satisfaction, and (iii) discuss validity and measurement issues pertaining to it.
Although female pharmacists generally hold less appealing jobs, earn lower wages and salaries, and are promoted less frequently than their male counterparts, they report higher levels of job satisfaction. Age has a U-shape effect on job satisfaction, with middle-age pharmacists less satisfied than both younger and older practitioners. Workload, stress, advancement opportunities, job security, autonomy, fairness in the workplace, supervisors, coworkers, flexibility, and job atmosphere are facets contributing to pharmacists’ job satisfaction. Finally, discrepancy exists among researchers in measuring job satisfaction as a single global indicator or as a composite measure derived from indices of satisfaction with key aspects of a job.
Understanding the mechanisms that affect pharmacists’ job satisfaction is important to employers in their pursuit to respond to practitioners’ needs, decrease turnover, and increase productivity. As pharmacists’ response to work-related conditions and experiences depends on gender and age, a unique set of rewards and incentives may not be universally effective. Additional research into the dynamics of the forces shaping pharmacists’ perceptions, opinions, and attitudes is needed in order to design and implement policies that allocate human resources more efficiently within the various pharmacy settings.
The authors hereby transfer, assign, or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice: (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print pr epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to Pharmacy Practice with this document.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.