Effect of a smoking cessation educational intervention on knowledge and confidence of pharmacy students versus community leaders
Background: Training programs of various intensities and durations have been implemented to assist healthcare providers and students in leading smokers in a quit attempt. While some training programs have been developed to help community leaders provide these services, the focus for community leaders has been to assist with recruitment efforts.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare knowledge and confidence of students and community members before and after a smoking cessation educational intervention.
Methods: After approval from the institutional review board, pharmacy students and community members were recruited for two-hour educational interventions. Topics covered included smoking health risks, benefits of quitting, behavioral, cognitive, and stress-management techniques, smoking cessation medications, and how to start a formal class. Pre- and post-intervention survey instruments were given to all participants with comparisons made via Student’s or Paired T-tests, as appropriate.
Results: Knowledge scores increased significantly (p<0.05) after the educational intervention for pharmacy students (n=30) and community members (n=8). Confidence scores increased significantly for pharmacy students (p<0.05), but not for community members. Pharmacy students had significantly greater knowledge score changes (53.7%, pre-intervention; 81.8%, post-intervention; p<0.05) versus community members (32.1%, pre-intervention; 50.1%, post-intervention; p<0.05). When comparing individual confidence questions, only scores evaluating the change in confidence for providing counseling were higher for students versus community members (2.13 vs. 1.8, respectively; p<0.05).
Conclusions: Pharmacy students and community leaders exhibited increased knowledge after a smoking cessation educational intervention, and pharmacy students had increased confidence scores. All confidence scores did not change significantly for community members. Developing coalitions between healthcare providers and community leaders, focusing on the roles of each, may be productive in initiating smoking cessation programs.
Smoking and Tobacco Use Fact Sheet. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm (accessed Jul 4, 2018).
Saba M, Diep J, Saini B, Dhippayom T. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in community pharmacy. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2014;39(3):240-247. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.12131
Sinclair HK, Bond CM, Stead LF. Community pharmacy personnel interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(1):CD003698. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003698.pub2
Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS, Marani S, Foxhall L, Ford KH, Luca NS, Wetter DW, Cantor SB, Vitale F, Gritz ER. Engaging physicians and pharmacists in providing smoking cessation counseling. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(18):1640-1646. https://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinternmed.2010.344
Carson KV, Verbiest ME, Crone MR, Brinn MP, Esterman AJ, Assendelft WJ, Smith BJ. Training health professionals in smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5):CD000214. https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000214.pub2
Hudmon KS, Bardel K, Kroon LA, Fenlon CM, Corelli RL. Tobacco education in U.S. schools of pharmacy. Nicotine Tob Res. 2005;7(2):225-232. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14622200500055392
Corelli RL, Fenlon CM, Kroon LA, Prokhorov AV, Hudmon KS. Evaluation of a train-the-trainer program for tobacco cessation. Am J Pharm Educ. 2007;71(6):109.
Saba M, Bittoun R, Saini B. A workshop on smoking cessation for pharmacy students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(9):198. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe779198
Williams DM. Preparing pharmacy students and pharmacists to provide tobacco cessation counseling. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009;28(5):533-540. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00109.x
Botelho R, Wassum K, Benzian H, Selby P, Chan S. Address the gaps in tobacco cessation training and services: developing professional organizational alliances to create social movements. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2009;28(5):558-566. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00112.x
Andrews JO, Newman SD, Heath J, Williams LB, Tingen MS. Community-based participatory research and smoking cessation interventions: a review of the evidence. Nurs Clin North Am. 2012;47(1):81-96. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2011.10.013
Bryant J, Bonevski B, Paul C, O'Brien J, Oakes W. Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: a qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:493. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-493
Bryant J, Bonevski B, Paul C, Hull P, O'Brien J. Implementing a smoking cessation program in social and community service organisations: a feasibility and acceptability trial. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012;31(5):678-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2011.00391.x
O'Brien J, Bonevski B, Salmon A, Oakes W, Goodger B, Soewido D. An evaluation of a pilot capacity building initiative for smoking cessationin social and community services: The Smoking Care project. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2012;31(5):685-692. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2012.00464.x
Schorling JB, Roach J, Siegel M, Baturka N, Hunt DE, Guterbock TM, Stewart HL. A trial of church-based smoking cessation interventions for rural African Americans. Prev Med. 1997;26(1):92-101. https://dx.doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1996.9988
Koch JR, Breland A. Behavioral healthcare staff attitudes and practices regarding consumer tobacco cessation services. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2017;44(3):399-413. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11414-015-9477-4
Cantor SB, Deshmukh AA, Luca NS, Nogueras-González GM, Rajan T, Prokhorov AV. Cost-effectiveness analysis of smoking-cessation counseling training for physicians and pharmacists. Addict Behav. 2015;45:79-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.01.004
The authors hereby transfer, assign or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print or epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to Pharmacy Practice with this document.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Author Self-Archiving Policy
Pharmacy Practice permits and encourages authors to post and archive the final PDFs of their respective articles submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit its publication in this journal.