Influence of self-efficacy management on adherence to self-care activities and treatment outcome among diabetes mellitus type 2 Sudanese patients
Background: High level of self-efficacy and adherence to self-care activities have a positive impact on the achievement of glycemic goal among diabetic patients. In Sudan, there is a gap in knowledge related to self-efficacy management and its influence on adherence to self-care activities and overall disease control.
Objective: To identify the influence of management self-efficacy on adherence to self-care activities and treatment outcome among Sudanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at two health care facilities in Sudan from April to May 2016. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Convenience sampling method was adopted. Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale and the Revised Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to collect data through a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis was performed. A p value <0.05 was considered to be significant. Data were processed using the software SPPS v 21.0.
Results: A total of 392 patients were included. Respondents classified with high level of self- efficacy across all domains were 191 (48.7%). Moreover, high level of education [adjusted OR 0.5 (0.3-0.7), (p=0.001)] and formal health education on diabetes [adjusted OR 2.4 (1.6-3.7), (p<0.001)], were found to be significantly associated with high level of diabetes management self-efficacy. Patients who had high level of self-efficacy to manage nutrition, physical exercise activity and medication were found more adherent to general diet, exercise activity, and medication taking, respectively. Patients with controlled disease were 87(22.2%). The only predictor of diabetes control was diabetes management self-efficacy [OR 2.1(1.3- 3.5), (p=0.002)].
Conclusions: Diabetes management self-efficacy was associated with high level of education and receiving health education. Self-efficacy was significantly associated with adherence to self-care activities and glycemic control. Substantial efforts are still needed to empower the patients with self-efficacy and improving adherence to self-care activities through appropriate interventions.
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