Pharmacist-led education curriculum for fourth-year medical students: a single-center experience

Main Article Content

Bashayer Mohammed Alshehail
Haytham Abdulaziz Wali
Zainab Al Jamea
Nouf Alotaibi
Abdulsalam Alasseri
Abdulaziz Aldahami
Abdulsattar AlHussain
Duaa Alsulaiman
Ebtesam ALGeri
Mohammad Alhassan
Salma Ansassy
Hani Alharbi
Fatma AlRoubia
Mohab Manna
Marwan Alwazzeh
Sara Al-Warthan


Pharmacist-led Education, Curriculum, Medical Students, knowledge, Interprofessional Education


Background: Doctors are usually challenged by the transition between theoretical basic science knowledge and actual clinical practice. Thus, a critical educational intervention is the early incorporation of pharmacists into the pharmacotherapy courses for undergraduate medical students from their college years and moving to the practice setting. Objective: We sought to determine if a pharmacist-led education course would improve medical students’ knowledge of general pharmacotherapy topics. Methods: All fourth-year female medical students were invited to enroll in the pharmacy practice curriculum between January and March 2022. The program was divided into three main domains: formal lectures, a hands-on prescription writing skills session, and on-site pharmacy practice sessions. The pharmacy practice session was divided into three sections: first section pharmacy practice, second section pharmacy innovation, and the third section clinical pharmacy. Those who completed the curriculum were requested to complete preand post-session assessments and curriculum evaluations. Results: One hundred fourteen medical students enrolled in the pharmacy practice module. One hundred eleven (97.4%) completed the pre-and post-course assessment. After completing the module, the medical students’ knowledge scores improved from pre- to post-course. A significant difference in the overall knowledge was observed between the pre-course and post-course scores (9.51 versus 16.04; p<0.001). The difference between the pre-course and post-course scores was also significant when comparing the knowledge per each part of the assessment, showing an average score of 2.78 versus 4.05 (p<0.001) for the first section; 3.39 versus 5.49 (p<0.001) for the second section; 3.34 versus 6.48 (p<0.001) for the third section. The program received overall positive feedback; the experience was rated overall as “Excellent” by 73% of the participants. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the impact of a pharmacist-led curriculum for medical students on improving their knowledge of fundamental pharmacy practice areas.

Abstract 518 | PDF Downloads 399


1. van Diggele C, Roberts C, Burgess A, et al. Interprofessional education: tips for design and implementation. BMC Med Educ. 2020;20(Suppl 2):455.
2. Gilbert JH, Yan J, Hoffman SJ. A WHO report: framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice. J Allied Health. 2010;(39 Suppl 1):196-197.
3. Hamilton LA, Behal ML, Metheny WP. Impact of Pharmacist Education on Incoming Medical Residents. Hosp Pharm. 2022;57(4):442-447.
4. Newby DA, Stokes B, Smith AJ. A pilot study of a pharmacist-led prescribing program for final-year medical students. BMC Med Educ. 2019;19(1):54.
5. Lerchenfeldt S, Hall LM. Pharm.D.s in the Midst of M.D.s and Ph.D.s: the Importance of Pharmacists in Medical Education. Medical Science Educator. 2018;28(1):259-261.
6. Wiernik PH. A dangerous lack of pharmacology education in medical and nursing schools: A policy statement from the American College of Clinical Pharmacology. J Clin Pharmacol. 2015;55(9):953-954.
7. Mokrzecki S, Pain T, Mallett A, et al. Pharmacist-Led Education for Final Year Medical Students: A Pilot Study. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021;8:732054.
8. Agee C, Coulter L, Hudson J. Effects of pharmacy resident led education on resident physician prescribing habits associated with stress ulcer prophylaxis in non-intensive care unit patients. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2015;72(11 Suppl 1):S48-52. https://
9. Myers MK, Jansson-Knodell CL, Schroeder DR, et al. Using knowledge translation for quality improvement: an interprofessional education intervention to improve thromboprophylaxis among medical inpatients. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2018;11:467-472.
10. Tittle V, Randall D, Maheswaran V, et al. Practical prescribing course: a student evaluation. Clin Teach. 2014;11(1):38-42.
11. Devine EB, Hansen RN, Wilson-Norton JL, et al. The impact of computerized provider order entry on medication errors in a multispecialty group practice. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2010;17(1):78-84.
12. Radley DC, Wasserman MR, Olsho LE, et al. Reduction in medication errors in hospitals due to adoption of computerized  provider order entry systems. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2013;20(3):470-476.
13. Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SDFA) Procedures and Controls of Narcotics and Psychotropic Substances. 2019.
14. McLean SF. Case-Based Learning and its Application in Medical and Health-Care Fields: A Review of Worldwide Literature. J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2016;3.
15. Garin N, Sole N, Lucas B, et al. Drug related problems in clinical practice: a cross-sectional study on their prevalence, risk factors and associated pharmaceutical interventions. Scientific Reports. 2021;11(1):883.
16. van den Bemt P, Egberts T. Drug-related problems: Definitions and classification. Eur J Hosp Pharm Pract. 2007;13. 
17. Pharmacists ASoH-S. ASHP Guidelines on Compounding Sterile Preparations. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2014;71(2):145-166.
18. Batson S, Herranz A, Rohrbach N, et al. Automation of in-hospital pharmacy dispensing: a systematic review. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2021;28(2):58-64.
19. Chapuis C, Roustit M, Bal G, et al. Automated drug dispensing system reduces medication errors in an intensive care setting. Crit Care Med. 2010;38(12):2275-2281.
20. Risør BW, Lisby M, Sørensen J. An automated medication system reduces errors in the medication administration process: results from a Danish hospital study. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2016;23(4):189-196.
21. El-Jardali F, Dimassi H, Jamal D, et al. Predictors and outcomes of patient safety culture in hospitals. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11(1):45.
22. (ISMP) IFSMP. ISMP List of High-Alert Medications in Community/Ambulatory Healthcare. 2021.
23. (ISMP) IfSMP. ISMP List of Confused Drug Names. 2019.
24. Hopkinson JB. Nutritional support of the elderly cancer patient: the role of the nurse. Nutrition. 2015;31(4):598-602.
25. Katoue MG. Role of pharmacists in providing parenteral nutrition support: current insights and future directions. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2018;7:125-140.
26. Barlam TF, Cosgrove SE, Abbo LM, et al. Implementing an Antibiotic Stewardship Program: Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):e51-77. https://doi.
27. Miesner AR, Lyons W, McLoughlin A. Educating medical residents through podcasts developed by PharmD students. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2017;9(4):683-688.
28. Jaam M, Naseralallah LM, Hussain TA, et al. Pharmacist-led educational interventions provided to healthcare providers to reduce medication errors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(6):e0253588.
29. Gursanscky J, Young J, Griffett K, et al. Benefit of targeted, pharmacist-led education for junior doctors in reducing prescription writing errors – a controlled trial. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research. 2018;48(1):26-35.
30. D’Epiro G, Trout MJ. Importance of Pharmacists in Medical Education. Medical Science Educator. 2018;28(1):263.

Most read articles by the same author(s)