The Evaluation of home medication review for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by community pharmacists: a randomised controlled trial

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Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Glycemic Control, Blood Glucose, Glycated Hemoglobin A, Pharmaceutical Services, Pharmacists, Medication Adherence, Disease Management, Program Evaluation, Linear Models, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Malaysia


Background: Successful diabetes treatment requires commitment and understanding of disease management by the patients.

Objective: This trial aimed to evaluate the programme effectiveness of home medication review by community pharmacists (HMR-CP) in optimising diabetes care and reducing medication wastage.

Methods: A randomised controlled trial was conducted on 166 patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) who were randomly assigned to the intervention or control groups. The intervention group received HMR-CP at 0-month, 3-month, and 6-month. The primary outcome was haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) while clinical outcomes, anthropometric data, and humanistic outcomes were the secondary outcomes. For the intervention group, drug-related problems (DRP) were classified according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Foundation (PCNE). Medication adherence was determined based on the Pill Counting Adherence Ratio (PCAR). The cost of medication wastage was calculated based on the total missed dose by the T2DM patients multiplied by the cost of medication. General linear model and generalised estimating equations were used to compare data across the different time-points within and between the groups, respectively.

Results: No significant difference was observed in the demographic and anthropometric data at baseline between the two groups except for fasting blood glucose (FBG). There was a significant reduction in the HbA1c (-0.91%) and FBG (-1.62mmol/L) over the study period (p<0.05). A similar observation was noted in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and total cholesterol (TC) but not in high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and anthropometric parameters. Both utility value and Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (MDKT) scores increased significantly over time. As for the intervention group, significant changes in PCAR (p<0.001) and the number of DRP (p<0.001) were noted.

Conclusions: HMR-CP significantly improved the glycaemic control, QoL, medication adherence, and knowledge of T2DM patients as well as reduced the number of DRP and cost of medication wastage. However, the impact of HMR-CP on certain clinical and anthropometric parameters remains inconclusive and further investigation is warranted. 

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