Impact of a clinical pharmacist on a cardiovascular surrogate endpoint: a pilot study

Main Article Content

Toni L. Ripley
Thomas A. Hennebry
Tiffany N. Sanders
Donald Harrison
R C. Rathbun



Utilizing a multidisciplinary approach to management of patients with certain chronic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been shown to improve treatment outcomes. The role of clinical pharmacists in comprehensive outpatient CVD management has not been evaluated.

Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a clinical pharmacist added to cardiologist care on blood pressure (BP), a key surrogate marker of CVD, in outpatients with CVD compared to cardiologist care alone.

Methods: A retrospective, matched-control study was conducted in patients established in a cardiovascular clinic. The intervention was referral to a pharmacist clinic; control was usual care from the cardiologist. The surrogate marker evaluated was the change in BP.

Results: Patients in the pharmacist-intervention (n=57) experienced significant reductions in diastolic BP (-2.6 mmHg, p=0.05) and non-significant reductions in systolic BP (-4.3 mmHg, p=0.16) compared to baseline, whereas patients in the control group experienced non-significant increases in both systolic and diastolic BP (+1.6/+0.7 mmHg, p=NS). Similarly, there were significant reductions in diastolic BP and non-significant reductions in systolic BP for the intervention group when compared to controls (difference 3.3 mmHg, p=0.04 and 5.9 mmHg, p=0.1, respectively). Lastly, the proportion of patients categorized as having Stage 2 BP was significantly reduced in the intervention group (p=0.02), but not in the controls (p=0.5).

Conclusions: The multidisciplinary model of care that included a clinical pharmacist reduced BP more than usual care by a cardiologist alone. This benefit was demonstrated in complex patients with CVD who were already receiving specialized care. The impact of this model on clinical outcomes requires further evaluation and should be a high priority given the burden of CVD in the population.

Abstract 1776 | PDF Downloads 823


1. Roger VL, Go AS, Lloyd-Jones DM, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Borden WB, Bravata DM, Dai S, Ford ES, Fox CS, Fullerton HJ, Gillespie C, Hailpern SM, Heit JA, Howard VJ, Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lackland DT, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Makuc DM, Marcus GM, Marelli A, Matchar DB, Moy CS, Mozaffarian D, Mussolino ME, Nichol G, Paynter NP, Soliman EZ, Sorlie PD, Sotoodehnia N, Turan TN, Virani SS, Wong ND, Woo D, Turner MB; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2012 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012;125(1):e2-e220.

2. Foot DK, Lewis RP, Pearson TA, Beller GA. Demographics and cardiology, 1950-2050. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000;35(4):1067-1081.

3. Heidenreich PA, Trogdon JG, Khavjou OA, Butler J, Dracup K, Ezekowitz MD, Finkelstein EA, Hong Y, Johnston SC, Khera A, Lloyd-Jones DM, Nelson SA, Nichol G, Orenstein D, Wilson PW, Woo YJ; American Heart Association Advocacy Coordinating Committee; Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Epidemiology and Prevention; Council on Arteriosclerosis; Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiopulmonary; Critical Care; Perioperative and Resuscitation; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and Interdisciplinary Council on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research. Forecasting the future of cardiovascular disease in the United States: A policy statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(8):933-944.

4. Gattis WA, Hasselblad V, Whellan DJ, O’Connor CM. Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(16):1939-1945.

5. Wilt VM, Gums JG, Ahmed OI, Moore LM. Outcome analysis of a pharmacist-managed anticoagulation service. Pharmacotherapy. 1995;15(6):732-739.

6. Bond CA, Raehl CL. Pharmacist-provided anticoagulation management in United States hospitals: Death rates, length of stay, Medicare charges, bleeding complications, and transfusions. Pharmacotherapy. 2004;24(8):953-963.

7. Chiquette E, Amato MG, Bussey, HI. Comparison of an anticoagulation clinic with usual medical care: anticoagulation control, patient outcomes, and health care costs. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158(15):1641-1647.

8. Murray MD, Ritchey ME, Wu J, Tu W. Effect of a pharmacist on adverse drug events and medication errors in outpatients with cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(8):757-763.

9. Murray MD, Young J, Hoke S, Tu W, Weiner M, Morrow D, Stroupe KT, Clark D, Smith F, Gradus-Pizlo I, Weinberger M, Brater DC. Pharmacist intervention to improve medication adherence in heart failure: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(10):714-725.

10. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. JAMA. 2003;289(19):2560-2572.

11. Cohn JN, Quyyumi AA, Hollenberg NK, Jamerson KA. Surrogate markers for cardiovascular disease: Functional markers. Circulation. 2004;109(25 Suppl 1):IV31-46.

12. Carter BL, Rogers M, Daly J, Zheng S, James PA. The potency of team-based care intervention for hypertension. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(19):1748-1755.

13. Carter BL, Bergus GR, Dawson JD, Farris KB, Doucette WR, Chrischilles EA, Hartz AJ. A cluster-randomized trial to evaluate physician/pharmacist collaboration to improve blood pressure control. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2008;10(4):260-271.

14. Weber CA, Ernst ME, Sezate GS, Zheng S, Carter BL. Pharmacist-physician comanagement of hypertension and reduction in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressures. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(18):1634-1639.

15. Tobari H, Arimoto T, Shimojo N, Yuhara K, Noda H, Yamagishi K, Iso H. Physician-pharmacist cooperation program for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension: a randomized-controlled trial. Am J Hypertens. 2010;23(10):1144-1152.

16. Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N, Peto R, Collins R; Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet. 2002;360(9349):1903-1913.

17. Tardif JC, Heinonen T, Orloff D, Libby P. Vascular biomarkers and surrogates in cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2006;113(25):2936-42.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>